Vitamin A

Mumps

In vitro inhibition of mumps by retinoids. 2013, Soye, Virol J

Vitamin A inhibits the replication of mumps virus in vitro.
Klenner used vitamin C to treat mumps and its complications.

Measles

Here's a small video with clippings from TV shows of the 50's and 60's, where you can see how the measles were treated Before the vaccine, chickenpox from year to year becomes more and more dangerous, and even, judging by some to sources, a deadly disease. > Here's another, more interesting video, analyzing the changes Measles are very dangerous with malnutrition and a lack of vitamin A, so it was often lethal in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and is still lethal in third world countries. But in developed countries, measles are much less dangerous than the flu, it easily passes, gives lifelong immunity, and, as we will see below, protects from much more dangerous diseases.

Measles

Intensive vitamin therapy in measles. 1932, Ellison, BMJ

In the 1920s, studies began proving that vitamin A protects against infections. In rats on a diet without vitamin A, salivary glands and mucous membranes atrophied, after which these tissues were infected with bacteria and the rats died. In 1931 it turned out that vitamin A prevents from postpartum sepsis Vitamin A then called anti-infective vitamin [1].
The measles virus attacks epithelial cells. With a deficiency of vitamin A, these atrophy cells ovans, which allows even innocuous bacteria to attack them, and infect the lungs, skin, middle ear and digestive tract, leading to complications.
In England, measles is dangerous mainly for children from the poor class, whose diet is fat-free (hence also vitamins A and D).
600 children of measles patients admitted to a London hospital were randomly divided into two groups, half of whom received vitamins A and D in the form of fish oil (courtesy of Glaxo Laboratories).
Mortality among those who did not receive vitamins was 8.7%, and among the recipients - 3.7%. After this successful test for the treatment of measles with vitamin A is simply forgotten.

Measles

Vitamin A supplements and mortality related to measles: a randomized clinical trial. 1987, Barclay, BMJ

A new vitamin A was discovered only 50 years later, when it turned out that children in Indonesia, even with a small deficit of vitamin A die in 4 times more often, and some age groups are 8-12 times more likely. Also, the addition of vitamin A decreased mortality by 34%. the WHO report of 1968 stated that there is nothing else that is associated with infectious diseases more than a lack of vitamin A.
Measles lowers the level vitamin A, even in normally eating children. Their level of vitamin becomes even lower than that of malnourished, uninfected children.
The authors conducted a randomized study of measles cases in Tanzania, a quarter of the children were severely malnourished, and only 30% had a weight above 80% of the norm, many suffering from anemia. 91% of children had a vitamin A level below 0.56 umol/l (today the lower limit of the norm is considered 1.75 umol/l). Among the children participating in the 14% were extremely depleted, and 58% were underweight. Among those who did not receive vitamin A (400 thousand units), mortality was 13%, and among those who received vitamin, mortality was 7%. Among children under two years of age, vitamin A decreased mortality by 87%. Exhausted children died of measles several times more often than those who ate better, without being associated with vitamin A.
After this study, WHO recommended use of vitamin A for children with measles, but only where the death rate exceeds 1%. The recommended dose of WHO was 100-200 thousand IU (depending on age), despite the fact that the study used a dose of 400 thousand IU.

Measles

A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. 1990, Hussey, N Engl J Med

Randomized double-blind study in South Africa (189 children). Unlike Tanzania, where children had a pronounced lack of vitamin, in South Africa, the clinical deficiency of the vitamin is very rare. of children with measles, the level of vitamin A was very low (averaging 0.4 umol/l), 92% had a lower level of 0.7, they also had a low level of retinol binding protein and albumin, all children from the poor area, almost all black or mulatto.
Children who received vitamin A (400 thousand IU) recovered from pneumonia and d Aeration is 2 times faster and they have a 2-fold less frequent cerebral (respiratory disease).12 out of 12 children who died, 10 received a placebo.No one died of a vitamin level above 0.7 umol/l.
The authors believe that vitamin A should be given to all severely ill children, and not only where the death rate is above 1%, and the dose should be increased to 400 thousand IU, since the effectiveness of a lower dose is not proven.

Measles

Vitamin A levels in children with measles in Long Beach, California. 1991, Arrieta, J Pediatr

The authors tested the vitamin A level in 20 children with measles in California, and to their surprise, half of them had a low level of vitamin A (less than 0.7), despite the fact that everyone was well fed. In the control group of uninfected children, all had normal levels of vitamin A. In the second control group (patients with other infectious diseases), 30% had a low level of vitamin A. All patients had measles and a low level of retinol-binding protein and prealbumin. assume to have well-nourished American children, the level of vitamin A during measles is not lowered. They also suggest that the level of vitamin A drops and other infectious diseases.

Measles

Vitamin A levels and severity of measles, New York City. 1992, Frieden, Am J Dis Child

Measured the level of vitamin A in 89 children under 2 years old with measles in New York, and compared with the control group, almost all were Latina and African Americans, 22% had a low level of vitamin (less than 0.7). % was a borderline level (0.7-0.87), children with a vitamin deficiency often had a high fever (above 40), the temperature stayed longer, and they were 2 times more likely to be hospitalized, and children with borderline vitamin levels were also hospitalized more often. control group, the level of vitamin A was not lowered, and the average level of vitamin A in them was 2 times higher than in the group of measles patients (0.92 vs. 1.9 umol/l).
Six children had a documentary confirmation of the vaccination.The symptoms of the disease, the level of the vitamin and the number of antibodies they had were exactly the same as those of not who have documented evidence of vaccination.
Lack of vitamin A weakens cellular immunity and reduces the production of antibodies.
The authors conclude that half of the children with measles in New York have a low or borderline vitamin A level, and this leads to a more severe illness. They offer to give vitamin A also to children in the United States, not just in the countries of the third world.
Related study in Milwaukee.

Measles

Vitamin A for treating measles in children. 2005, Huiming, Cochrane Database Syst Rev

Systematic review of Cochrane using vitamin A in the treatment of measles. Two doses of vitamin A (200,000 IU each) reduce measles mortality by 82%, the risk of otitis is reduced by 74%, the risk of croup is 47%. Vitamin A on a water basis is more effective than vitamin A on a fat basis.
One dose of vitamin A does not reduce mortality.
Can it be that three doses of vitamin A, or higher doses will reduce the mortality even more? This, for some reason, no one did not check.

Measles

Reduced mortality among children in southern India, receiving a small weekly dose of vitamin A. 1990, Rahmathullah, N Engl J Med

A randomized controlled trial of the effects of vitamin A on mortality: 15,000 children were divided into two groups: one received only vitamin E once a week, and the other received vitamin A (8,000 IU) once a week, who received vitamin A, mortality was 54% lower.In children under the age of 4 years, the death rate was 4 times lower than in children who did not receive vitamin A. Among those who were undernourished (such were 72%), vitamin A reduced mortality 9 times.
The authors did not expect such a significant reduction in mortality, since in Indonesia and a similar experiment led to a reduction in mortality only 11-45%. But in Indonesia, vitamin A is added to the sodium glutamate, and in India to peanut butter.

Measles

Vitamin A supplementation and child mortality. A meta-analysis. 1993, Fawzi, JAMA

A meta-analysis of the impact of vitamin A on infant mortality: Vitamin A reduced measles deaths by 60%, and among infants by 90%. Mortality from pneumonia decreased by 70%.

Measles

Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from six months to five years of age. 2017, Imdad, Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

A systematic review of Cochrane's overall vitamin A impact on morbidity and mortality: Prophylactic Vitamin A supplement reduces mortality by 12-24%, the risk of diarrhea is reduced by 15%, the risk of measles is reduced by 50%.

Measles

Severe measles: some unanswered questions. 1983, Morley, Rev Infect Dis

In developed countries, measles is an easy disease, and it's bad, the authors write, because the parents of these children who make decisions in this world may decide that the measles vaccine is not so important, but in Africa, measles they die 400 times more, and therefore vaccination is very important there, they also write that a malnourished child releases 3 times more virus than a normal one, and that malnutrition, especially in children, leads to a more serious illness, and a lack of vitamin A can lead to blindness.

Measles

The effect of live measles vaccines on serum vitamin A levels in healthy children. 1998, Yalçin, Acta Paediatr Jpn

Like measles, vaccination against measles and MMR, also significantly depletes the supply of vitamin A. [1]

Measles

Vitamin A and Measles. 2000, West, Nutr Rev

A review article on vitamin A and measles In England, measles mortality fell 200 times from 1908 to 1960, before vaccination began. The authors write that the tradition of giving children every day fish oil (rich in vitamin A ) has practically disappeared in Europe, and has remained only in Norway, they recommend giving vitamin A along with the vaccination.

Measles

Unlike vitamin A, there is no research proving that the measles vaccine leads to a decrease in measles mortality.
And now remember how much you heard in the media about vitamin A, and how much about vaccinations in the light of the latest "epidemics" of measles.