Association between a priori antibiotic therapy and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections: a systematic review. 2017, Malik, J Antimicrob Chemother

The use of antibiotics subsequently increases the risk of pneumococcal infection, as well as the risk of Hib, meningitis, infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Campylobacter, typhoid, furuncles, mastitis, ARVI and urinary tract infections.


Seven-Valentine Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Healthy Children. 2014, Biesbroek, Emerg Infect Dis

In vaccinated from pneumococcus, there are fewer pneumococcal bacteria of non-vaccine serotypes in the upper respiratory tract, but more hemophilic rod and staphylococcus, as well as much more anaerobic bacteria (Veilonella, Prevotella, Bacteroidetes, Leptotrichia), Actinomyces, Rothia, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Megasphaera and Streptococcus It is known that some of these bacteria [increase the risk of otitis media.] Temporary bacterial imbalance also increases the risk of otitis media.
Those taking antibiotics had 4 times less Corynebacteria and Dolosigranulum, and 6.3 times more staph Ilococcus.

Whooping cough

Early childhood infection and atopic disorder. 1998, Farooqi, Thorax

In vaccinated with whole-cell vaccine, the risk of allergy was 76% higher. In those who took antibiotics in the first two years of life, the risk of allergy was 2 times higher.
Taking one course of antibiotics increased the risk of developing an allergy by 85%, two courses of antibiotics increased the risk 3-fold, and three courses of antibiotics increased the risk 8-fold.
Those who had measles and had not received the vaccine, had a 45% lower risk of developing an allergy (note: in this case there was no statistical significance).

Whooping cough

Antibiotics for whooping cough (pertussis). 2007, Altunaiji, Cochrane Database Syst Rev

A systematic review of the effect of antibiotics on whooping cough conducted by Cochrane found that while antibiotics kill pertussis and reduce the probability that a person transmits the disease, they do not affect the actual course of the disease.
The use of antibiotics to help prevent infants from contracting pertussis is ineffective. Research has demonstrated that the use of antibiotics among children only leads to a longer illness.

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