Paediatricians knowledge, attitudes, and practices for immunizations for infants in Italy. 2009, Anastasi, BMC Public Health

Only 10.3% of the paediatricians participating in this survey had a very favourable attitude towards the utility of the recommended vaccinations for infants
60% of the paediatricians would like to know more about vaccines.
Only 25% of the paediatricians administered "recommended" (as opposed to "mandatory") vaccines to their patients (whooping cough, measles, mumps, chickenpox, rubella, Hib, pneumococcus, meningococcus). (Italy)


Influenza vaccination among healthcare workers in Italy. 2014, Alicino, Hum Vaccin Immunother

Health workers are refusing influenza vaccination, despite ten years of efforts to increase the vaccination rates. Only 30% of doctors, 11% of nurses, and 9% of clinical staff have been vaccinated against the flu. (Italy)

Hepatitis A

Cross sectional retrospective study of prevalence of atopy among Italian military students with antibodies against hepatitis A virus. 1997, Matricardi, BMJ

Recruits in Italy, who had antibodies for hepatitis A, suffered from asthma and allergic rhinitis 2 times less often, than the soldiers who did not have antibodies. Recruits, who had older brothers, also suffered from allergic diseases less frequently, which means that hepatitis A is not the only infection that decreases the risk of allergic diseases.
Hepatitis A was an endemic disease in Italy in the 1970s. It was usually an asymptomatic childhood disease.
Other studies in recent decades also reveal an inverse relationship between hepatitis A antibodies and allergies in different countries. In the 1970s in the USA, hepatitis A antibodies were more often detected in the older generation than in the younger one, whereas younger generation had more atopic diseases.

Hepatitis A

Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection. 2009, Cacopardo, Dig Liver Dis

It is considered that hepatitis A superinfection (an infection that develops on top of another infection), in hepatitis B and C chronic patients, leads to liver failure and high probability of death. However, it is also reported that hepatitis A infection can cause a full or temporary recovery from chronic hepatitis. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are unknown.
A case of a 24-year-old drug addict with chronic hepatitis is described here. He ate raw fish and got hepatitis A, after curing which, he no longer had chronic hepatitis C. It was most likely due to interferon gamma (a cytokine secreted by Th1 cells), the level of which increased significantly after infection.
Cases of hepatitis B suppression during hepatitis A are also reported: [1], [2], [3].


Epidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella in Italy. 2002, Gabutti, Epidemiol Infect

In the 70s to 90s Italy, the incidence of rubella in children decreased, but increased significantly in teenagers and adults.
The incidence of mumps significantly decreased in children under 14 years of age, but remained almost the same among adults. It could be because the Rubini strain was used in Italy, which turned out to be very ineffective. This strain was replaced in 2001.
The number of rubella cases among children increased in the 80s, and then decreased again. Among the teenagers and adults, the number of cases increased significantly in the 80s, and remained high in the following years.
59% of children in the 2-4 years age group had measles and rubella antibodies, but only 32% had antibodies against all three infections. Among the 14-year-olds, only 46% had antibodies against all three diseases. Among those of the age 20 years and older, 6.1% had no measles antibodies, 11.7% had no mumps antibodies, and 8.8% of those 15 years old and over had no rubella antibodies.
The incidence of rubella has not changed over the last decades, despite the fact that rubella vaccination for girls was introduced in Italy in the 1970s. On the contrary, insufficient vaccination coverage, which does not eradicate the disease, as in the case of measles, causes a shift of the disease incidence to adults, which is much more dangerous in the case of rubella due to the risk of infection during pregnancy.
The authors conclude that the WHO’s goal of measles, mumps and rubella eradication has not been achieved, and that insufficient vaccination in Italy only caused an increase in number of adults susceptible to measles and rubella, and had no effect on mumps.


Tetanus: A rare and preventable cause of death among drug users and the elderly. 1996, Sangalli, Eur J Epidemiol

From 1984 to 1994, 40 people died of tetanus in the Lazio region in Italy (population of 5.1 million). 48% of them were elderly people, and among the younger ones, mostly intravenous drug users died. In the age group of under 30 years old, no death were recorded. Among those who were not drug users, only one person under the age of 40 died, and two more people under the age of 50. The risk of death in elderly people was 27 times higher, in farmers – 167 times higher, and in drug users – 186 times higher.


Sudden unexpected deaths and vaccinations during the first two years of life in Italy: a case series study. 2011, Traversa, PLoS One

Unlike the previous study, a study of 3 million infants in Italy found no connection between hexavalent vaccine and SIDS in the second year of life. Instead it found that the risk of SIDS during the first week after Hexavac was 2.8 times higher, the risk of SIDS after the first dose of any hexavalent vaccine was 2.2 times higher, and the risk of SIDS during the week after the first dose of any vaccine was 1.5 times higher than in the control group.
The control group consisted of the same infants that were vaccinated, just before they were vaccinated and 14 days after. That is, if an infant died on the 15th day after the vaccination, his death would increase the likelihood that the vaccine was not related to SIDS, since that infant already would be a part of the control group.


Possible effect of measles on leukaemia. 1971, Pasquinucci, Lancet

Of the four cases of lymphoblastic leukemia in 1965, two patients had died and two other contracted measles during treatment and are alive to this day (1971). In addition to measles, one girl also contracted rubella. The author believes that the rubella virus may also have a beneficial effect.


Vaccine-derived poliomyelitis and postpolio syndrome: an Italian Cutter Incident. 2014, Lusi, JRSM Open

У 52-х летнего мужчины в Италии возникла мышечная слабость, боль в суставах и затрудненное дыхание, которые продолжались год, пока ему не пришлось пересесть в инвалидную коляску. Оказалось, что это последствия полиомиелита, которым он заболел в младенчестве вследствие IPV, в которой еще остался живой вирус.
Это называется синдром постполиомиелита, и им страдают 25-50% тех, кто выздоровел от острого полиомиелита, и возникает он через 15-40 лет после болезни.
Пациента привили вакциной Солка, в то же время, когда в США произошел Cutter incident.


Assessment of iatrogenic transmission of HCV in Southern Italy: was the cause the Salk polio vaccination? 2003, Montella, J Med Virol

На юге Италии, в возрастной группе 40-49 лет, слишком много больных гепатитом С, в 3 раза больше, чем у более молодых. Вероятно, это следствие прививок от полиомиелита в 1956-1965 годах, когда там использовали вакцину Солка, и кололи ее используя многоразовые шприцы.


Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae is associated with pneumococcal vaccination in Italian children. 2015, Camilli, Vaccine

Pneumococcus colonization among vaccinated and unvaccinated people in Italy did not differ. The H. influenzae bacteria were more often found among vaccinated ones.

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