Italy

Physicians

Paediatricians knowledge, attitudes, and practices for immunizations for infants in Italy. 2009, Anastasi, BMC Public Health

Only 10% of physicians had a good opinion of all vaccines.
60% of doctors would like to know more about vaccines.
Only 25% of doctors gave optional vaccines to their patients (whooping cough, measles, mumps, chickenpox, rubella, Hib, pneumococcus, meningococcus). (Italy)

Physicians

Influenza vaccination among healthcare workers in Italy. 2014, Alicino, Hum Vaccin Immunother

Health workers are refusing influenza vaccination, despite ten years of efforts to increase vaccination rates. Only 30% of doctors, 11% of nurses, and 9% of clinical staff have been vaccinated against the flu. (Italy)

Hepatitis A

Cross sectional retrospective study of prevalence of atopy among Italian military students with antibodies against hepatitis A virus. 1997, Matricardi, BMJ

Recruits in Italy, who had antibodies to hepatitis A, had asthma and allergic rhinitis 2 times less often than soldiers who did not have antibodies. Recruits who had older brothers also suffered from allergic diseases less often, which means that hepatitis A is not the only infection that reduces the risk of allergic diseases. In Italy, hepatitis A was an endemic disease in the 1970s, they were usually infected in childhood and passed asymptomatically. research also reveals in recent decades feedback antibodies to hepatitis A and allergies in different countries.In the United States in the 1970s, the eldest generation had more antibodies to hepatitis A than the younger generation, whereas the younger generation had more atopic diseases.

Hepatitis A

Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection. 2009, Cacopardo, Dig Liver Dis

Superinfection (an infection that develops against a background of another infection) of hepatitis A in chronic hepatitis B and C patients is believed to lead to liver failure and a high probability of death. However, it is also reported that hepatitis A infection can lead to complete or temporary recovery from chronic hepatitis.The mechanisms of this phenomenon are unknown.The case of a 24-year-old drug addict who had chronic hepatitis C was described. He ate raw fish and became ill with hepatitis A, after which he underwent chronic hepatitis C.
All in all, interferon gamma (cytokine secreted by Th1 cells) is responsible for this, the level of which has significantly increased after infection.
Hepatitis B suppression is also reported during hepatitis A: [1], [2], [3].

Pneumococcus

Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae is associated with pneumococcal vaccination in Italian children. 2015, Camilli, Vaccine

Colonization with pneumococcus among vaccinated and unvaccinated in Italy did not differ: the haemophilus influenza was much more common among the vaccinated.

Rubella

Epidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella in Italy. 2002, Gabutti, Epidemiol Infect

In the 70s to 90s Italy, the incidence of rubella in children decreased, but increased significantly in teenagers and adults.
The incidence of mumps significantly decreased in children under 14 years of age, but remained almost the same among adults. It could be because the Rubini strain was used in Italy, which turned out to be very ineffective. This strain was replaced in 2001.
The number of rubella cases among children increased in the 80s, and then decreased again. Among the teenagers and adults, the number of cases increased significantly in the 80s, and remained high in the following years.
59% of children in the 2-4 years age group had measles and rubella antibodies, but only 32% had antibodies against all three infections. Among the 14-year-olds, only 46% had antibodies against all three diseases. Among those of the age 20 years and older, 6.1% had no measles antibodies, 11.7% had no mumps antibodies, and 8.8% of those 15 years old and over had no rubella antibodies.
The incidence of rubella has not changed over the last decades, despite the fact that rubella vaccination for girls was introduced in Italy in the 1970s. On the contrary, insufficient vaccination coverage, which does not eradicate the disease, as in the case of measles, causes a shift of the disease incidence to adults, which is much more dangerous in the case of rubella due to the risk of infection during pregnancy.
The authors conclude that the WHO’s goal of measles, mumps and rubella eradication has not been achieved, and that insufficient vaccination in Italy only caused an increase in number of adults susceptible to measles and rubella, and had no effect on mumps.

Measles

Possible effect of measles on leukaemia. 1971, Pasquinucci, Lancet

Out of four cases of lymphoblastic leukemia in 1965, two died, and two got measles during treatment and are still alive. The author believes that it is possible that the rubella virus also has rubella there is a beneficial effect.

Tetanus

Tetanus: A rare and preventable cause of death among drug users and the elderly. 1996, Sangalli, Eur J Epidemiol

From 1984 to 1994, 40 people died of tetanus in the Lazio region in Italy (population of 5.1 million). 48% of them were elderly people, and among the younger ones, mostly intravenous drug users died. In the age group of under 30 years old, no death were recorded. Among those who were not drug users, only one person under the age of 40 died, and two more people under the age of 50. The risk of death in elderly people was 27 times higher, in farmers – 167 times higher, and in drug users – 186 times higher.

SIDS

Sudden unexpected deaths and vaccinations during the first two years of life in Italy: a case series study. 2011, Traversa, PLoS One

В отличие от предыдущего исследования, в исследовании 3-х миллионов младенцев в Италии не обнаружилось связи между шестивалентной вакциной и СВДС на втором году жизни. Но обнаружилось, что риск СВДС в течение первой недели после Гексавак был в 2.8 раз выше, риск СВДС после первой первой дозы шестивалентной любой вакцины был в 2.2 раза выше, а риск СВДС в течение недели после любой первой вакцинации был в 1.5 раза выше.
В качестве контрольной группы выступали те же самые младенцы в период до вакцинации и в период 14 дней после нее. То есть если младенец умирал на 15-й день после вакцинации, его смерть повышала вероятность того, что вакцина не связана с СВДС.