Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis (VAPP)

Polio

Intramuscular injections within 30 days of immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine - a risk factor for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. 1995, Strebel, N Engl J Med

Between 1970 and 1984, Romania participated in tests of the safety of oral vaccine under the auspices of WHO, it turned out that in Romania, for some reason, 5-17 times more cases of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis (VAPP) are registered than in 12 other countries At first thought that in Romania the vaccine was too virulent, but in 1990 it was replaced with another vaccine, but the frequency of VAPP did not change.
There were 31 such cases among children from 1988 to 1992. Of these, 18 had a vaccination paralysis, and 13 got infected from vaccinated. They were compared to non-paralyzed children. It turned out that 87% of paralyzed children received intramuscular injections 30 days before the onset of paralysis (an average of 16.8 injections each), compared with 51% of non-paralyzed children (an average of 2.8 injections each). Each injection increased the risk of paralysis by 13%. In those who received one injection, paralysis was observed 8 times more often than those who did not receive injections, and those who received more than 10 injections, paralysis was observed 182 times more often. Penicillin injections increased the risk of paralysis by 62 times, injections of other antibiotics 40 times, and the DTP shot increased the risk of paralysis by a factor of 3.
86% of cases of VAPP were caused by injections. If children were not injected 30 days after OPV, the average number of cases of VAPP would not be 10.3 per year (1: 178 thousand), but 1.4 per year (1: 1.3 million).

Polio

The relation of prophylactic inoculations to the onset of poliomyelitis. 1950, McCloskey, Lancet

The fact that injections and vaccinations provoke paralysis was known back in 1950.
This describes the epidemic of poliomyelitis in Melbourne in 1949. Some children were vaccinated against whooping cough and diphtheria and soon they developed paralytic poliomyelitis The doctors, of course, denied any connection, it turned out, however, that such a connection was, because most paralysis cases developed precisely in the stitched leg or arm. The authorities thought for a long time whether to inform this information to doctors and the population, and decided to report whooping cough, and about diphtheria not to inform. The press story did not inflate, and the future of vaccination was not called into question.

Polio

Provision of poliomyelitis by multiple injections. 1985, Wyatt, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg

The connection between poliomyelitis and injections was recognized in Australia in 1950 and in the United Kingdom, and later in the US In 1954, it was confirmed in experiments with monkeys. The injections began to occur in the winter, and this led to cases of paralysis from they were minimized.In the initial study, it was shown that each injection increases the risk of paralysis by a factor of 5.
Here, the authors review the literature and show that the risk of paralysis due to injection can be increased 25-fold, and that numerous injections, especially arsenic and penicillin, significantly increase the risk of paralysis in comparison eniyu with a one-time shot.

Polio

Mechanism of Injury-Provoked Poliomyelitis. 1988, Gromeier, J Virol

The authors conducted an experiment in mice, and found that, in fact, a muscle injury from injections increases the risk of paralysis from poliovirus, and describes the mechanism of its penetration into the nervous system (through muscle axons). In addition to poliovirus, other enteroviruses also can lead to poliomyelitis, although it is not known exactly how they penetrate the nervous system.Previously, injections can provoke poliomyelitis and other viruses.

Polio

Attributable risk of DTP (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine) injection in provoking paralytic poliomyelitis during a large outbreak in Oman. 1992, Sutter, J Infect Dis

In addition to the lack of vaccination, there are several more causes of paralytic poliomyelitis, such as stress, trauma, physical activity, pregnancy, removal of tonsils and injections. In 1988-1989 there was a polio outbreak in Oman (118 cases), despite for coverage of vaccination in 87%, there was no correlation between the number of doses of the vaccine and paralysis, but many more children were infected who received the DTP vaccine for the previous paralysis of 30 days, 25% of the children became ill due to DTP, and among children 5-11 months because of it 35% were ill.
For the first time the paralytic The vaccine-induced lyomyelitis was described in 1909, and then three polio outbreaks were described among patients with congenital syphilis and with tropical syphilis who received injections of various arsenic-based drugs.However, after the beginning of the 40's they began to inoculate against diphtheria , tetanus and whooping cough, scientists drew attention to the connection between injections and polio. Based on these data, the authors note that it is probably not worthwhile to prick other poliomyelitis vaccines simultaneously.

Polio

Unnecessary injections and poliomyelitis in Pakistan. 1996, Wyatt, Trop Doct

But nothing has changed since the 1950s. In 1993, out of 152 children with paralytic poliomyelitis in Pakistan, 89% received an unnecessary injection 48 hours before the onset of paralysis, paralysis almost always developed at the site of the injection. in Pakistan, a similar picture was observed.
The same observed and in India.
Today, too, in many countries OPV is combined with injections other vaccines.