Seasonal and Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination coverage and attitudes among health-care workers in a Spanish University Hospital. 2010, Vírseda, Vaccine

More than half of the health-care workers refused to be vaccinated against influenza, and only 16% received the vaccine against swine flu during the 2009 pandemic. They doubted the effectiveness of the vaccination and were afraid of the adverse effects. (Madrid, Spain)

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A outbreak in Barcelona among men who have sex with men (MSM), January-June 2017: A hospital perspective. 2017, Rodríguez-Tajes, Liver Int

46 cases were registered in a Barcelona hospital. 96% of them were men, and 67% identified themselves as homosexuals. The authors write that the main risk factor is the oral-anal contact during sex, that most recent outbreaks in Europe happened between 2008 and 2011, and that because of these outbreaks, hepatitis A was classified as an STD.


Death from diphtheria in developed countries is so rare that every such case is widely reported in the media. In 2015, a boy died of diphtheria in Spain, and in 2008, a girl died in England. These seem to be the only deaths of children from diphtheria in developed countries in the last 30 years.

Whooping cough

Pertussis epidemic despite high levels of vaccination coverage with acellular pertussis vaccine. 2013, Sala-Farré, Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin.

This is an epidemiological study in Spain analysing 421 cases of Pertussis, mostly in children under the age of one year. The vast majority of infected individuals (90%) had actually been fully vaccinated. The carriers were mostly fully vaccinated children aged 5-9 years. Only 8% of the 421 cases were hospitalized, and not one died. The authors conclude that despite a high level of vaccination in Spain, whooping cough is totally uncontrollable. Furthermore, they suggested that the real number of patients is probably much higher since only confirmed laboratory cases were considered in their analysis.
There are dozens of studies claiming the same thing: despite high global levels of pertussis vaccination, there have been more and more pertussis epidemics in the last 20 years. In addition, most of the infected have been vaccinated. More: [1], [2].


Identification of vaccine human papillomavirus genotypes in squamous intraepithelial lesions (CIN2 - 3) 2008, González-Bosquet, Gynecol Oncol

Among the unvaccinated women with CIN 2-3 only 28% were infected with the HPV 16 and 18 strains.
9% of the women with CIN 2-3 did not have HPV at all (Barcelona).
In another study, HPV was only found in 60% of the cases of invasive cervical cancer.


Emergence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes in the era of 7-valent conjugate vaccine. 2008, Muñoz-Almagro, Clin Infect Dis

After the start of vaccination, the incidence of pneumococcal infection in Barcelona increased by 58%, and among children - by 135%.
The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased by 40%, and for non-vaccine serotypes it increased by 531%.
The incidence of pneumonia and empyema among children under 5 years of age increased by 320%.

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