The probability of diarrhea upon primary rotavirus infection is 47%. With subsequent infections the probability of diarrhea decreases. Having had rotavirus diarrhea decreases the risk of diarrhea upon repeat infection by 77%, and the risk or severe diarrhea by 87%. Two/three rotavirus diarrheas decrease the risk of subsequent infection by 83%/92%.
Having had asymptomatic infection decreases the risk of subsequent infection by 38%.
Having had two infections (symptomatic or asymptomatic) gives 100% protection from severe diarrhea.
Short breastfeeding period increases the risk of rotavirus infection.
Exclusive breastfeeding decreases the risk of rotavirus infection by 38%. More: , , , , , , , .
Breast milk of mothers in Sweden had much more rotavirus antibodies in the spring than in the fall.
The level of zinc in the blood correlates with protection against rotavirus. Late vaccination (at 17 weeks old) is more effective than vaccination at 10 weeks old.
Before the introduction of vaccination, Hib incidence was 30/100,000 among white, and 600/100,000 among indigenous people in Alaska. The incidence in the USA increased by 4 times between 1940 and 1970. The same happened in Scotland and Sweden.
Breastfeeding has a protective effect from Hib meningitis, and it lasts 5-10 years.
A short breastfeeding period (less than 13 weeks) increases the risk of Hib by 3.8 times. Children that are not usually healthy get infected 4.5 times more often.
Breast milk has an inhibitory effect on the attachment of bacteria to the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx.
The graph shows that a decrease in the number of breastfed babies is followed by an increase in the Hib incidence, and when the number of breastfed babied increased again – Hib incidence decreased.
Among children over 1 year of age, short breastfeeding period is associated with a 8-fold increase in the risk of Hib. Each additional week of breastfeeding decreases the risk of Hib by 5%. The protective effect of breastfeeding begins from 13 weeks of exclusive breastfeeding, and lasts for months and years.Risk factors of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease among children in Finland. 1989, Takala, J Pediatr
Attending daycare is associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of Hib. Previous hospitalizations – with 90% increase in the risk. Breastfeeding for over 6 months decreases the risk by 53%.Day care attendance and other risks factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. 1993, Arnold, Am J Epidemiol
Passive smoking is associated with a 40% increase in the risk of Hib. Daycare – with 3-fold increase in the risk. Breastfeeding decreases the risk by 50%. African Americans got infected 4 times more often.A case-control assessment of risk factors for Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis. 1993, Sherry, Eur J Pub Health
Breastfeeding for more than a month is associated with a 62% decrease in the risk of Hib meningitis. Breastfeeding for more than 9 months – with 88% decrease in the risk. Daycare – with 2.6-4.7 times increase in the risk.Risk factors for primary invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease: increased risk from day care attendance and school-aged household members. 1985, Istre, J Pediatr
Among children under the age of 6 months, exclusive breastfeeding is associated with a 90% decrease in the risk of Hib. Attending daycare is associated with a 2-6 fold increase in the risk. The larger are the groups at daycare, the higher is the risk.Long term enhancement of the IgG2 antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b by breast-feeding. 2002, Silfverdal, Pediatr Infect Dis J
Among children infected with Hib, those who were breastfed longer had higher levels of antibodies.Effect of breast-feeding on antibody response to conjugate vaccine. 1990, Pabst, Lancet
Breastfed children developed significantly more antibodies after the vaccine than children that were given formula.Risk factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b in Los Angeles County children 18-60 months of age. 1992, Vadheim, Am J Epidemiol
Analysis of all the Hib cases in Los Angeles in 1988-9 (8.7 million population, 750 thousand of them – children under the age of 5 years). 88 cases were registered among children during the year. Mortality rate was 4.5%.
The risk of Hib in children living in homes with more than two smokers was 6 times higher.
Six or more people living in one hearth is associated with a 3.7-fold increase in the risk of Hib. African Americans get infected 3.5 times more often. Chronic illness and low income also increase the risk.
Vaccination and breastfeeding decrease the risk of Hib (for white people). Vaccination with polysaccharide vaccine increases the risk of Hib.
Another study found that a smoking parent increases the risk of Hib by 2.4 times.
There were no increases in Hib incidence after the switch to acellular pertussis vaccine in Sweden and Finland. The authors believe that it is due to the fact that longer breastfeeding periods are common in these countries.Association of subclinical vitamin D deficiency with severe lower respiratory infection in Indian children under 5 y. 2004, Wayse, Eur J Clin Nutr
Children with vitamin D >22.5 nmol/l contracted severe acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) 91% less frequently. Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 4 months of life reduced the risk of ALRI by 58%.Infants' exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months. 2010, Dórea, J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
Even one single Hepatitis B vaccine, which the baby gets on their first day of life, has 5 times more aluminum than they would get from 6 months of breastfeeding.
Moreover, it is impossible to compare aluminum and aluminum adjuvant, which is bound to the antigen, and which is much harder for the body to dispose of.
The aforementioned article from the 6th paragraph responds to the third argument. Offit fails to mention that the motor activity of 20% of mice from this experiment was significantly impaired. Not to mention that comparing intramuscular aluminum and aluminum in food (only 0.25% of which is absorbed) is impossible, just like comparing aluminum lactate with aluminum phosphate or aluminum hydroxide. Different aluminum salts have different toxicity.
Meta-analysis of 18 studies. In infants who received any amount of breast milk for any duration, the incidence of SIDS was 60% lower. For exclusive breastfeeding the incidence of SIDS was 73% lower.
Breastfeeding does not reduce the risk of SIDS in smoking mothers.
The use of pacifiers is associated with a reduced risk of SIDS. However, it is associated with an increased risk of otitis media and gastrointestinal infections.
In children who were breast-fed for more than 3 months, the risk of clinical measles was 31% lower compared to those who were not, regardless of the vaccination status.
It is also reported that among vaccinated children, 28% had measles, vs. 74% among unvaccinated.
Breastfeeding is associated with a 73% reduction in the risk of pneumococcal infection.
The risk of hospitalization of not breastfed children due to pneumonia (not only pneumococcal) was 17 times higher than for breastfed children. Among infants younger than 3 months it was 61 times higher.