The probability of diarrhea upon primary rotavirus infection is 47%. With subsequent infections the probability of diarrhea decreases. Having had rotavirus diarrhea decreases the risk of diarrhea upon repeat infection by 77%, and the risk or severe diarrhea by 87%. Two/three rotavirus diarrheas decrease the risk of subsequent infection by 83%/92%.
Having had asymptomatic infection decreases the risk of subsequent infection by 38%.
Having had two infections (symptomatic or asymptomatic) gives 100% protection from severe diarrhea.
Short breastfeeding period increases the risk of rotavirus infection.
Exclusive breastfeeding decreases the risk of rotavirus infection by 38%. More: , , , , , , , .
Breast milk of mothers in Sweden had much more rotavirus antibodies in the spring than in the fall.
The level of zinc in the blood correlates with protection against rotavirus. Late vaccination (at 17 weeks old) is more effective than vaccination at 10 weeks old.
Breastfeeding (HBV) is associated with a 73% reduction in the risk of pneumococcal infection.
Here that the risk of hospitalization of children not for HB due to pneumonia (not only pneumococcal) was 17 times higher than for children in GW, and among infants younger than 3 months - 61 times higher.
The incidence of Hib before vaccination began was 30/100,000 among whites, and 600/100,000 among Aboriginal people in Alaska. The incidence in the United States increased 4-fold from 1940 to 1970. The same happened in Scotland and Sweden.
Breastfeeding has a protective effect against meningitis caused by Hib, and this effect lasts 5-10 years.
A short period of breastfeeding (less than 13 weeks) increases the risk of Hib 3.79 times. Painful children get sick 4.5 times more often.
Breast milk has an inhibitory effect on the attachment of bacteria to the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx.
As the chart shows, after the decrease in the number of children on breastfeeding, the incidence of Hib increased, and when their percentage increased again, the incidence of Hib decreased.
Among children over 1 year of age, a short period of breastfeeding (HS) is associated with an increased risk of Hib 7.79-fold. Each additional week of HB reduced the risk of Hib by 5%. The protective effect of HB started already with 13 weeks of exclusive breastfeeding, and lasted for months and years.Risk factors of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease among children in Finland. 1989, Takala, J Pediatr
Visiting kindergarten is associated with a 5-fold increase in Hib risk, previous hospitalizations - with a 90% increase in risk, BF for more than 6 months lowered the risk by 53%.Day care attendance and other risks factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. 1993, Arnold, Am J Epidemiol
Passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of Hib by 40%. Kindergarten - with a 2.9-fold increase in risk. BF - with a 50% reduction in risk. Blacks were 4.1 times more sick.A case-control assessment of risk factors for Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis. 1993, Sherry, Eur J Pub Health
BF for more than a month is associated with a decrease in the risk of meningitis from Hib by 62%, BF for more than 9 months - with a decrease in risk by 88%. Kindergarten - with a risk increase of 2.6-4.7 times.Risk factors for primary invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease: increased risk from day care attendance and school-aged household members. 1985, Istre, J Pediatr
Among children under 6 months of age, exclusive HB is associated with a 90% reduction in Hib risk. Visiting kindergarten - increasing the risk by 1.9-5.9 times. The larger the group in the garden, the higher the risk.Long term enhancement of the IgG2 antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b by breast-feeding. 2002, Silfverdal, Pediatr Infect Dis J
Among the sick Hib children, those who were longer on HB, had more antibodies.Effect of breast-feeding on antibody response to conjugate vaccine. 1990, Pabst, Lancet
Children on HB formed significantly more antibodies after vaccination than in children on artificial feeding.Risk factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b in Los Angeles County children 18-60 months of age. 1992, Vadheim, Am J Epidemiol
An analysis of all cases of Hib in Los Angeles in 1988/9 (8.7 million people, of whom 750,000 are children under the age of 5).A total of 88 cases were recorded among children during the year, with a lethality rate of 4.5%.
Risk Hib in children in homes where more than 2 smokers live was six times higher.
Six or more people living in one house are associated with an increased risk of Hib 3.71 times Negroes are 3.47 times more likely to suffer and also increase the risk of chronic disease and low income.
Vaccination and breastfeeding (in white) reduce the risk of Hib.Vac vaccination with a polysaccharide vaccine increased the risk of Hib.
In another iss The study found that the smoking parent increased the Hib risk by 2.37 times.
In Sweden and Finland, there has been no increase in the number of cases of Hib after switching to acellular pertussis vaccine, the authors believe that this is due to the fact that longer breastfeeding is common in these countries.Association of subclinical vitamin D deficiency with severe lower respiratory infection in Indian children under 5 y. 2004, Wayse, Eur J Clin Nutr
Children with a vitamin D level above 22.5 nmol/L suffered from pneumonia 91% less frequently. Exceptional GV over the course of 4 months reduced the risk of pneumonia by 58%.Infants' exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months. 2010, Dórea, J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
Even one single Hepatitis B vaccine, which the baby gets on their first day of life, has 5 times more aluminum than they would get from 6 months of breastfeeding.
Moreover, it is impossible to compare aluminum and aluminum adjuvant, which is bound to the antigen, and which is much harder for the body to dispose of.
The aforementioned article from the 6th paragraph responds to the third argument. Offit fails to mention that the motor activity of 20% of mice from this experiment was significantly impaired. Not to mention that comparing intramuscular aluminum and aluminum in food (only 0.25% of which is absorbed) is impossible, just like comparing aluminum lactate with aluminum phosphate or aluminum hydroxide. Different aluminum salts have different toxicity.
Метаанализ 18 исследований. У младенцев, получивших какое-либо количество грудного молока риск СВДС был на 60% ниже. У младенцев на исключительном ГВ риск СВДС был на 73% ниже.
У курящих матерей ГВ не снижает риск СВДС.
Использование соски ассоциировано со снижением риска СВДС. Соска, однако, ассоциирована с повышенным риском среднего отита и желудочно-кишечных инфекций.