Carriage of pneumococci after pneumococcal vaccination. 1996, Obaro, Lancet

Since invasive infection requires colonization of bacteria in the nasopharynx, the goal of vaccination is also to reduce the colonization of pneumococcus.
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was first tested on infants in Gambia in 1993, where it was found that while vaccine serotype colonization decreased by 78%-89%, non-vaccine serotype colonization increased by 4.5 times.

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