Canada

Meningococcal

Invasive meningococcal disease in Quebec, Canada, due to an emerging clone of ST-269 serogroup B meningococci with serotype antigen 17 and serosubtype antigen P1.19 (B: 17: P1.19). 2006, Law, J Clin Microbiol

Serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak in Québec in 2004. The authors believe that it probably happened due to serogroup replacement due to vaccination with the polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C.

Anti-vaxxers

A Population-Based Evaluation of a Publicly Funded, School-Based HPV Vaccine Program in British Columbia, Canada: Parental Factors Associated with HPV Vaccine Receipt. 2010, Ogilvie, PLoS Med.

Having more education was associated with a decreased having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine. (Canada)

Chickenpox

Most ten-year-old children with negative or unknown histories of chickenpox are immune. 2001, Boulianne, Pediatr Infect Dis J

62% of 10-year-old unvaccinated children, who have not been exposed to chickenpox (or did not know about it), had antibodies.

Chickenpox

Risk of febrile seizures after first dose of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: a population-based cohort study. 2014, MacDonald, CMAJ

MMRV increases the risk of febrile seizures by 6.5 times, and MMR+V by 3.3 times. (Canada)

Haemophilus influenzae

Effect of breast-feeding on antibody response to conjugate vaccine. 1990, Pabst, Lancet

Breastfed children developed significantly more antibodies after the vaccine than children that were given formula.

Haemophilus influenzae

Characterization of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Manitoba, Canada, 2000-2006: invasive disease due to non-type b strains. 2007, Tsang, Clin Infect Dis

Hib incidence in Manitoba (Canada) decreased due to vaccination, but then it began to increase again, and has already reached the pre-vaccine level.
Previously, only 10% of patients were over 10 years old, and now there are 56%. Similar changes in epidemiology are also observed in the USA.
The authors compared their research data to the official incidence data, and found that only 1 in 17 Hib cases between 2000-2004 was officially registered. They conclude that Hib incidence rate is significantly underestimated, and that the incidence of infection with other strains of H. influenzae bacteria is, most likely, also underestimated.

Haemophilus influenzae

Changing epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Ontario, Canada: evidence for herd effects and strain replacement due to Hib vaccination. 2010, Adam, Vaccine

Vaccination decreased the Hib incidence in Ontario (Canada) by 57%, but the incidence of serotype f increased by 2.4 times, and the incidence of noncapsulated strains increased by 3 times. Hib incidence decreased by 7% annually in children under the age of 5 years, and the incidence of noncapsulated strains increased by 7% annually in children of 5-19 years of age. Overall, the incidence of H. influenzae has not changed much, but the incidence of meningitis has decreased and the incidence of sepsis has increased.
The noncapsulated strains colonize the upper respiratory tracts in 65% of children.

Haemophilus influenzae

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae in British Columbia: non-Hib and non-typeable strains causing disease in children and adults. 2011, Shuel, Int J Infect Dis

Before the introduction of vaccination, 24 Hib cases a year were registered in 1989 in British Columbia (Canada). 45-53 cases in a year were registered between 2008 and 2009. Serotype B incidence decreased, and serotype A incidence increased. Previously, mostly children got infected, but now adults were also getting sick.

Haemophilus influenzae

Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae diseases in Northwestern Ontario, Canada, 2010-2015. 2017, Eton, Int J Infect Dis

Serotype A (Hia) incidence in Ontario is already 76% higher than Hib incidence was in the pre-vaccination era.

Influenza

A Perfect Storm: Impact of Genomic Variation and Serial Vaccination on Low Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness During the 2014-2015 Season. 2016, Skowronski, Clin Infect Dis

During the season 2014/15 the effectiveness of vaccine against flu type A(H3N2) in Canada was estimated at 53% for those who got vaccinated that year. Among those who had been vaccinated the previous year, the effectiveness was negative -32%. Among those who were vaccinated third year in a row, the vaccine effectiveness was negative -54%. Therefore, the average flu vaccine effectiveness was -17% (negative).

Influenza

Seasonal influenza vaccine and increased risk of pandemic A/H1N1 related illness: first detection of the association in British Columbia, Canada. 2010, Janjua, Clin Infect Dis

Seasonal influenza vaccination increased the risk of swine flu infection by 2.5 times among children in Canada in 2009. These results were confirmed in five other studies. More: [1].

Influenza

Vitamin D for influenza. 2015, Schwalfenberg, Can Fam Physician

Tamiflu and Relenza are useless drugs which do more harm than good. The author writes that in nursing homes he has seen some of the patients and staff develop vomiting; some with serious diarrhea (also a known side effect); some with acute confusion, hallucinations, or delirium; and a number with worsening cognitive function. These medications should no longer be stockpiled or used. This would result in tremendous savings in health care dollars.
The Institute of Medicine recommendation for adults younger than 70 years of age is 600 IU of vitamin D daily, to achieve a level of 50 nmol/L in more than 97.5% of individuals. Regrettably, a statistical error has resulted in erroneous recommendations by the Institute of Medicine leading to this conclusion. In actual fact one needs to take 8800 IU of vitamin D to achieve this level in 97.5% of the population.
The author and his colleague have introduced vitamin D at doses that have achieved greater than 100 nmol/L in most of their patients for the past number of years, and they now see very few patients with the flu or influenza like illness. In those patients who do have influenza, they have treated them with the vitamin D hammer: a 1-time 50 000 IU dose of vitamin D3 or 10 000 IU 3 times daily for 2 to 3 days. The results are dramatic, with complete resolution of symptoms in 48 to 72 hours. The cost of vitamin D is about a penny for 1000 IU, so this treatment costs less than a dollar.

Diphtheria

Booster immunization for diphtheria and tetanus: no evidence of need in adults. 1985, Mathias, Lancet

Recommendations for getting booster vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus every ten years are based on serological studies, according to which, the elderly have lower level of antibodies. However, the goal of the vaccination is to prevent disease, not the production of antibodies. In Canada, the incidence of diphtheria does not increase with age; neither does the tetanus mortality rate increase.
The authors conclude that the benefit from booster vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus in adults, does not justify neither the risks, nor the cost.

Diphtheria

The Diphtheria Epidemic in Halifax. 1941, Morton, Can Med Assoc J

Diphtheria outbreak in Halifax (Canada) in 1940. 66 cases, of which 30% were fully vaccinated.

Diphtheria

Some Observations on Diphtheria in the Immunized. 1945, Gibbard, Can J Public Health

In the early 1940s, Canada had a diphtheria epidemic (1,028 cases, 4.3% mortality rate). 24% of the patients were vaccinated (or protected). Among them, five have died (one of them was vaccinated just six months before getting sick).
Overall, those vaccinated had milder symptoms. The authors conclude that the vaccine is effective, but not 100%.

Whooping cough

Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma. 2008, McDonald, J Allergy Clin Immunol

In an analysis of 11,000 children who received a whole-cell vaccine in Canada, those who received the first dose of the vaccine two months later than usual developed asthma far less often (2-fold lower chance). Furthermore, those who received all three doses of the vaccine later in childhood had a 2.5-fold lower risk of developing asthma.
This phenomenon is due to the fact that the immune reaction shifts towards Th2. The exact cause of asthma is not yet known, but according to one of the prevailing theories, asthma is caused by increased hygiene. When children grow up in an extremely sterile environment, they do not come into contact with bacteria. This leads to the production of IgE antibodies. These IgE antibodies are responsible for asthma, allergies, dermatitis, and other problems that are much more common in vaccinated children. This is because vaccinations shift immunity towards Th2, which happens directly (due to vaccine antigens), and indirectly (due to protection against bacteria) affected.

Pneumococcal

The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in British Columbia, the next implementation of an infant immunization program: increases in herd immunity and replacement disease. 2012, Sahni, Can J Public Health

The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infection among children under 5 years old decreased by 78% between 2002 and 2010, but it increased among children over 5 years old, adults and the elderly. Vaccine strains were replaced by non-vaccine ones. In general, the incidence has not changed. In 2006-2007, an outbreak of pneumococcus was recorded among beggars and drug addicts. (British Columbia, Canada)

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