Invasive meningococcal disease in Quebec, Canada, due to an emerging clone of ST-269 serogroup B meningococci with serotype antigen 17 and serosubtype antigen P1.19 (B: 17: P1.19). 2006, Law, J Clin Microbiol

In 2004, there was an outbreak of meningococcal disease in serogroup B. In the authors believe that this was probably due to the replacement of the serogroup due to vaccination with polysaccharide vaccine from serogroup C.


A Population-Based Evaluation of a Publicly Funded, School-Based HPV Vaccine Program in British Columbia, Canada: Parental Factors Associated with HPV Vaccine Receipt. 2010, Ogilvie, PLoS Med.

More educated parents more often refused HPV vaccines for their daughters. (Canada)


Risk of febrile seizures after first dose of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: a population-based cohort study. 2014, MacDonald, CMAJ

MMRV increases the risk of febrile seizures by 6.5 times, and MMR+V - by 3.3 times. (Canada)


The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in British Columbia, the next implementation of an infant immunization program: increases in herd immunity and replacement disease. 2012, Sahni, Can J Public Health

The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infection among children under 5 years decreased by 78% between 2002 and 2010, but it increased among children older than 5 years, adults and the elderly. Vaccine strains were replaced by non-vaccine strains. In 2006-2007, a pneumococcal outbreak was registered among beggars and drug addicts (British Columbia, Canada)

Haemophilus influenzae

Effect of breast-feeding on antibody response to conjugate vaccine. 1990, Pabst, Lancet

Children on HB formed significantly more antibodies after vaccination than in children on artificial feeding.

Haemophilus influenzae

Characterization of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Manitoba, Canada, 2000-2006: invasive disease due to non-type b strains. 2007, Tsang, Clin Infect Dis

The incidence of Hib in Manitoba (Canada) has declined due to vaccination, but then it began to rise again and has already reached the incidence rate in the pre-vaccination era.
Previously, only 10% of patients were older than 10 years, but now they are 56%. A similar change in epidemiology is observed in the United States.
The authors compared the findings of their study with official morbidity data and found that only 1 out of 17 cases was officially registered in 2000-2004.They conclude that the Hib incidence rate is very low, and most likely, also anizhena statistics incidence of other strains of Haemophilus influenzae bacteria.

Haemophilus influenzae

Changing epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Ontario, Canada: evidence for herd effects and strain replacement due to Hib vaccination. 2010, Adam, Vaccine

Vaccination reduced the incidence of Hib in Ontario (Canada) by 57%, but the incidence of serotype f increased 2.4-fold and the incidence of noncapsular strains tripled. Hib incidence declined by 7% per year among children under 5 years of age, and the incidence of noncapsular strains increased among children aged 5-19 years by 7% per year.In general, the incidence of hemophilic infection was almost unchanged, the incidence of meningitis decreased, and the incidence of sepsis increased.
Capsule-free strains colonize upper respiration in 65% of children.

Haemophilus influenzae

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae in British Columbia: non-Hib and non-typeable strains causing disease in children and adults. 2011, Shuel, Int J Infect Dis

In 1989, 24 cases of Hib were reported in British Columbia before vaccination in Canada, 45-53 cases per year were recorded in 2008-2009, the incidence of serotype B decreased, and the incidence of serotype A.If children used to be ill earlier, now adults are sick too.

Haemophilus influenzae

Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae diseases in Northwestern Ontario, Canada, 2010-2015. 2017, Eton, Int J Infect Dis

The incidence of serotype A (Hia) in Ontario is 76% higher than the incidence of Hib in the pre-vaccination era.


A Perfect Storm: Impact of Genomic Variation and Serial Vaccination on Low Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness During the 2014-2015 Season. 2016, Skowronski, Clin Infect Dis

In the 2014/15 season, the effectiveness of A(H3N2) vaccine in Canada was 53% for those who were vaccinated only this year, among those who were vaccinated also in the previous season, the efficacy was negative -32%. those who were vaccinated for 3 consecutive years, the effectiveness was -54%.
On average, the efficiency was -17%.


Seasonal influenza vaccine and increased risk of pandemic A/H1N1 related illness: first detection of the association in British Columbia, Canada. 2010, Janjua, Clin Infect Dis

Seasonal influenza vaccination increased the risk of swine flu infection by 2.5 times among children in Canada in 2009. These results were confirmed in five other studies. More: [1].


Vitamin D for influenza. 2015, Schwalfenberg, Can Fam Physician

Tamiflu and Relenza are useless drugs that do more harm than good. I have seen how patients in nursing homes and staff begin because of them vomiting, diarrhea, hallucinations, delirium, and worsening cognitive function. The IOM recommends taking 600 IU vitamin D for those under 70 years old to reach the level of 50 nmol/L in 97.5% of people. However, their recommendation contains a statistical error, and in fact, you need to take 8800 IU to achieve this For several years, as I and my colleague have given vitamin D to patients, and most of them have a vitamin level of more than 100 nmol/L. We rarely see patients with influenza or ARD, and when we see, we give them shock doses of vitamin D (a one-time dose of 50,000 IU, or 10,000 IU three times a day for 2-3 days) Symptoms completely pass for 48-72 hours Vitamin D costs a penny for 1000 IU, that is, this treatment costs less dollar.


Booster immunization for diphtheria and tetanus: no evidence of need in adults. 1985, Mathias, Lancet

Recommendations for getting booster vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus every ten years are based on serological studies, according to which, the elderly have lower level of antibodies. However, the goal of the vaccination is to prevent disease, not the production of antibodies. In Canada, the incidence of diphtheria does not increase with age; neither does the tetanus mortality rate increase.
The authors conclude that the benefit from booster vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus in adults, does not justify neither the risks, nor the cost.


The Diphtheria Epidemic in Halifax. 1941, Morton, Can Med Assoc J

Diphtheria outbreak in Halifax (Canada) in 1940. 66 cases, of which 30% were fully vaccinated.


Some Observations on Diphtheria in the Immunized. 1945, Gibbard, Can J Public Health

In the early 1940s, Canada had a diphtheria epidemic (1,028 cases, 4.3% mortality rate). 24% of the patients were vaccinated (or protected). Among them, five have died (one of them was vaccinated just six months before getting sick).
Overall, those vaccinated had milder symptoms. The authors conclude that the vaccine is effective, but not 100%.

Whooping cough

Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma. 2008, McDonald, J Allergy Clin Immunol

In an analysis of 11,000 children who received a whole-cell vaccine in Canada, those who received the first dose of the vaccine two months later than usual developed asthma far less often (2-fold lower chance). Furthermore, those who received all three doses of the vaccine later in childhood had a 2.5-fold lower risk of developing asthma.
This phenomenon is due to the fact that the immune reaction shifts towards Th2. The exact cause of asthma is not yet known, but according to one of the prevailing theories, asthma is caused by increased hygiene. When children grow up in an extremely sterile environment, they do not come into contact with bacteria. This leads to the production of IgE antibodies. These IgE antibodies are responsible for asthma, allergies, dermatitis, and other problems that are much more common in vaccinated children. This is because vaccinations shift immunity towards Th2, which happens directly (due to vaccine antigens), and indirectly (due to protection against bacteria) affected.