Pleural empyema is a complication of pneumonia (accumulation of pus in the cavities surrounding the lungs), which occurs in 3% of cases of pneumonia, and in a third of cases of pneumococcal pneumonia.
The incidence of pleural empyema in the United States increased by 70% between 1997 and 2006, despite a decrease in cases of bacterial pneumonia and pneumococcus. Among children under 5 years of age, hospitalization due to pleural empyema increased by 100%.
The incidence of bacterial pneumonia decreased by 13%. The incidence of invasive pneumococcus has decreased by 50%. The total number of pneumonia complications increased by 44%.
After the start of vaccination, the incidence of pneumococcal infection in Barcelona increased by 58%, and among children - by 135%.
The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased by 40%, and for non-vaccine serotypes it increased by 531%.
The incidence of pneumonia and empyema among children under 5 years of age increased by 320%.
After vaccination began, between 1997 and 2003, the incidence of pneumococcal infection in Salt Lake City (Utah) decreased by 27%. The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased from 73% to 50%. The number of cases from non-vaccine serotypes increased 3 times. Children with non-vaccine serotypes were hospitalized longer. The proportion of cases of pleural empyema complications increased from 16% to 30%, and the proportion of severe cases increased from 57% to 71%. More: .Invasive pneumococcal disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes among Alaska native children with high levels of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage. 2007, Singleton, JAMA
Native children in Alaska suffer from invasive pneumococcal infection 3 times more often than Americans on average. In the first 3 years after the start of vaccination (2001-2003), the incidence of pneumococcal infection among indigenous children under 2 years old in Alaska decreased by 67%. After that, in 2004-2006, the incidence increased by 82%.
The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased by 96%, and for non-vaccine serotypes it increased by 140%.
The proportion of cases complicated by pleural empyema increased from 2% to 13%. The proportion of cases with pneumonia and bacteremia increased from 40% to 57%.
In 2004, 41% of the population were carriers of pneumococcus. The proportion of seven vaccine serotypes decreased from 41% to 5%, and for non-vaccine serotypes it increased from 47% to 88%.