Empyema of the pleura is a complication of pneumonia (accumulation of pus in the cavities surrounding the lungs), which occurs in 3% of cases of pneumonia, and in a third of cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. The incidence of empyema in the US increased by 70% between 1997 and 2006, despite the decrease in cases of bacterial pneumonia and pneumococcus. Among children less than 5 years old, the hospitalization due to pleural empyema increased by 100%.
The incidence of bacterial pneumonia decreased by 13% The incidence of invasive pneumococcus decreased by 50%. Your complications of pneumonia increased by 44%.
After the start of vaccination, the incidence of pneumococcal infection in Barcelona increased by 58%, and among children by 135%.
The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased by 40%, and the non-vaccine serotypes increased by 531%.
Incidence of pneumonia and empyema among children under 5 years old rose by 320%.
After vaccination began, between 1997 and 2003, the number of cases of pneumococcal infection in Salt Lake City (Utah) decreased by 27%. The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased from 73% to 50%. The number of cases of non-vaccine serotypes increased The number of cases with complicated pleural empyema increased from 16% to 30%, and the proportion of severe cases increased from 57% to 71%. More: .Invasive pneumococcal disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes among Alaska native children with high levels of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage. 2007, Singleton, JAMA
Aboriginal children in Alaska are infected with invasive pneumococcal infection 3 times more often than Americans on average. For the first 3 years after the start of vaccination (2001-2003), the incidence of pneumococcal infection among indigenous children under 2 years of age in Alaska decreased by 67%, but then in 2004-2006, the incidence increased by 82%.
The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased by 96%, and the non-vaccine serotypes increased by 140%.
The share of cases complicated by pleural empyema increased from 2% to 13%.The share of cases with pneumonia and bacteremia increased from 40% to 57%.
41% of the population were carriers of pneumococcus in 2004. The share of seven vaccine serotypes decreased from 41% to 5%, and of non-vaccine serotypes increased from 47% to 88%.