Strain replacement

Meningococcal

Capsule switching of Neisseria meningitidis. 1997, Swartley, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Just like pneumococcus, meningococcal bacteria know how to change their serogroup.

Meningococcal

Invasive meningococcal disease in Quebec, Canada, due to an emerging clone of ST-269 serogroup B meningococci with serotype antigen 17 and serosubtype antigen P1.19 (B: 17: P1.19). 2006, Law, J Clin Microbiol

In 2004, there was an outbreak of meningococcal disease in serogroup B. In the authors believe that this was probably due to the replacement of the serogroup due to vaccination with polysaccharide vaccine from serogroup C.

Rotavirus

Effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) against severe diarrhea caused by serotypically unrelated G2P [4] strains in Brazil. 2010, Correia, J Infect Dis

In Brazil, the strain of rotavirus G2P(4), which occurred in 19%-30% of cases before vaccination, changed all other strains 15 months after vaccination began. The vaccine (Rotarix) efficacy against this strain was 77% among children 6-11 months, and -24% (negative) among children over 12 months. More: [1], [2]. Here reported that after the initiation of vaccination in Brazil, the common strains of rotavirus were replaced by a new strain of G12P(8) The replacement of the strains also occurred in Paraguay https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20213281] and in Argentina.

Rotavirus

Detection of rotateq vaccine-derived, double-reassortant rotavirus in a 7-year-old child with gastroenteritis. 2014, Hemming, Pediatr Infect Dis J

Since the rotavirus genome consists of separate segments, when two different strains of the virus infect one cell, they can exchange segments and create a new strain. This is the same reassortment that takes place uncontrollably.
Here is reported the case of gastroenteritis in a seven-year-old girl, a rotavirus strain was isolated from her stool, which was a reassortment of two other human-bovine strains from the Rotakek vaccine, but the girl was not vaccinated against rotavirus, and she had no contact with anyone who was Her two brothers also had similar symptoms of gastroenteritis, they also were not vaccinated, and did not come into contact with vaccinated.
The isolated reassortant strain of the virus proved to be stable and very contagious.The authors believe that this new virus is likely to circulate among the population. Previously, reassortant strains have already been isolated, but only in newly vaccinated Rotatec: [1], [2], [3]. Here the discovery of new strains against the reassortment of dick virus with the Rotarix vaccine strain. Here it is reported that 17% of children isolated the virus after vaccination, and 37% of them were isolated twice reassortant virus. Some children isolated the virus a long time after vaccination, 9 to 84 days after the last dose.

Rotavirus

Vaccine-derived NSP2-segment in rotaviruses from vaccinated children with gastroenteritis in Nicaragua. 2012, Bucardo, Infect Genet Evol

The authors analyzed the rotavirus genome in vaccinated children with gastroenteritis in Nicaragua, and discovered new strains of the virus that formed due to reassortment between the wild strain and the vaccine strains from Rotatec.

Rotavirus

Identification of strains of RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine in infants with gastroenteritis following routine vaccination. 2012, Donato, J Infect Dis

Among children who had diarrhea within two weeks after vaccination, 21% were sick from the vaccine strain. Of the isolated vaccine strains, 37% were strains that were reassortant from the two vaccine strains of Rotatec.

Pneumococcus

Rapid pneumococcal evolution in response to clinical interventions. 2011, Croucher, Science

In response to antibiotics and for vaccination, pneumococcus quickly mutates.Pneumococcus bacteria can change their serotype.

Pneumococcus

Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Pneumococcal Serotype 35B among Children in the United States. 2017, Olarte, J Clin Microbiol

After the vaccination began, a new serotype 35B appeared, which was rarely seen before, but now year after year is responsible for an increasing number of pneumococcal infections, this serotype is 5 times more deadly than other serotypes, and often insensitive to antibiotics.
The incidence of pneumococcus decreased 2-fold within 2 years after the start of vaccination, and remained approximately at the same level. More: [1].

Pneumococcus

Emergence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes in the era of 7-valent conjugate vaccine. 2008, Muñoz-Almagro, Clin Infect Dis

After the start of vaccination, the incidence of pneumococcal infection in Barcelona increased by 58%, and among children by 135%.
The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased by 40%, and the non-vaccine serotypes increased by 531%.
Incidence of pneumonia and empyema among children under 5 years old rose by 320%.

Pneumococcus

Temporal trends of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in the intermountain west: the emergence of nonvaccine serogroups. 2005, Byington, Clin Infect Dis

After vaccination began, between 1997 and 2003, the number of cases of pneumococcal infection in Salt Lake City (Utah) decreased by 27%. The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased from 73% to 50%. The number of cases of non-vaccine serotypes increased The number of cases with complicated pleural empyema increased from 16% to 30%, and the proportion of severe cases increased from 57% to 71%. More: [1].

Pneumococcus

Invasive pneumococcal disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes among Alaska native children with high levels of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage. 2007, Singleton, JAMA

Aboriginal children in Alaska are infected with invasive pneumococcal infection 3 times more often than Americans on average. For the first 3 years after the start of vaccination (2001-2003), the incidence of pneumococcal infection among indigenous children under 2 years of age in Alaska decreased by 67%, but then in 2004-2006, the incidence increased by 82%.
The incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased by 96%, and the non-vaccine serotypes increased by 140%.
The share of cases complicated by pleural empyema increased from 2% to 13%.The share of cases with pneumonia and bacteremia increased from 40% to 57%.
41% of the population were carriers of pneumococcus in 2004. The share of seven vaccine serotypes decreased from 41% to 5%, and of non-vaccine serotypes increased from 47% to 88%.

Pneumococcus

The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in British Columbia, the next implementation of an infant immunization program: increases in herd immunity and replacement disease. 2012, Sahni, Can J Public Health

The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infection among children under 5 years decreased by 78% between 2002 and 2010, but it increased among children older than 5 years, adults and the elderly. Vaccine strains were replaced by non-vaccine strains. In 2006-2007, a pneumococcal outbreak was registered among beggars and drug addicts (British Columbia, Canada)

Pneumococcus

The changing role of exposure to children as a risk factor for bacterial pneumococcal disease in the post conjugate vaccine era. 2010, Metlay, Arch Intern Med

In Philadelphia, the incidence of vaccine serotypes among adults decreased by 29% per year in 2002-2008, and by non-vaccine serotypes increased by 13% per year. In general, the incidence of pneumococcal infection increased by 7% per year.
Blacks were twice as likely to be white, the more children in the home, the lower the risk of the disease Diabetes increases the risk of the disease 2.5 times, smoking 2.2 times.

Pneumococcus

Several more articles on the replacement of pneumococcal strains from vaccine to vaccine to non-vaccine: [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17]
....and about the replacement of pneumococcus with hemophilic and other bacteria: [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7].

Pneumococcus

Carriage of pneumococci after pneumococcal vaccination. 1996, Obaro, Lancet

Because the invasion requires bacterial colonization in the nasopharynx to begin with, the goal of vaccination is also to reduce the colonization of pneumococcus. For the first time, conjugated pneumococcal vaccine was tested in infants in the Gambia in 1993, where it was found that while colonization with vaccine serotypes decreased by 78% -89%, colonization by non-vaccine serotypes increased 4.5-fold.

Pneumococcus

Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae is associated with pneumococcal vaccination in Italian children. 2015, Camilli, Vaccine

Colonization with pneumococcus among vaccinated and unvaccinated in Italy did not differ: the haemophilus influenza was much more common among the vaccinated.

Pneumococcus

Effect of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae among children in São Paulo, Brazil. 2016, Brandileone, Vaccine

After vaccination began, colonization with vaccine serotypes was significantly reduced and increased by a non-vaccine one.2-5 times more often than in unvaccinated people (Sao Paulo, Brazil)

Pneumococcus

Post-PCV7 changes in the colonization of pneumococcal serotypes in 16 Massachusetts communities, 2001 and 2004. 2005, Huang, Pediatrics

Between 2001 and 2004, in children under 7 years old in Massachusetts, the colonization of seven vaccine serotypes of pneumococcus in the nasopharynx decreased, and colonization by other serotypes increased. In general, colonization with pneumococcus did not change much, the immunity to penicillin increased from 8 % to 25% among non-vaccine serotypes, and from 45% to 56% among vaccine serotypes.

Pneumococcus

Continued impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on carriage in young children. 2009, Huang, Pediatrics

Continuation of the previous study. By 2007, vaccine serotypes had practically disappeared, and were replaced by non-vaccine and penicillin-insensitive serotypes.In general, the level of colonization by pneumococcus was 30% as before, but among children under 6 months of age has grown significantly.

Pneumococcus

Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage in Young Children in Massachusetts. 2014, Lee, J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

13-valent vaccine (PCV13) also did not change colonization with pneumococcus. Colonization with vaccine serotypes decreased, and non-vaccine serotypes increased by 12% per year.
Colonization level among vaccinated PCV13 children and unvaccinated did not differ. Colonization with PCV13 strains was 70% lower among healthy vaccinated children, but not among children with ARVI.

Pneumococcus

Changes in nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis among healthy children attending a day-care center before and after the official financial support for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and H. influenzae type b vaccine in Japan. 2014, Oikawa, J Infect Chemother

In Japan, after the start of vaccination against Hib and pneumococcus, colonization with pneumococcal vaccine serotypes decreased, and non-vaccine serotypes increased. In general, colonization with pneumococcus did not change, colonization with the haemophilic rod increased.

Pneumococcus

Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype-Specific Carriage and Invasive Disease in England: A Cross-Sectional Study. 2011, Flasche, PLoS Med

In England colonization with vaccine serotypes has decreased, and non-vaccine serotypes has increased.In general, colonization increased by 6% (no statistical significance).

Haemophilus influenzae

Changing epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Ontario, Canada: evidence for herd effects and strain replacement due to Hib vaccination. 2010, Adam, Vaccine

Vaccination reduced the incidence of Hib in Ontario (Canada) by 57%, but the incidence of serotype f increased 2.4-fold and the incidence of noncapsular strains tripled. Hib incidence declined by 7% per year among children under 5 years of age, and the incidence of noncapsular strains increased among children aged 5-19 years by 7% per year.In general, the incidence of hemophilic infection was almost unchanged, the incidence of meningitis decreased, and the incidence of sepsis increased.
Capsule-free strains colonize upper respiration in 65% of children.

Haemophilus influenzae

Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis and emergence of serotype replacement with type a strains after introduction of Hib immunization in Brazil. 2003, Ribeiro, J Infect Dis

A year after the start of vaccination in Brazil, the number of cases of meningitis from Hib decreased by 69% (from 2.62 to 0.81 per 100,000).The number of cases of meningitis from Hia (hemophilic rod of serotype A) increased 8-fold (from 0.02 to 0.16 per 100,000.) Clinically, the virulence of Hib and Hia does not differ, the mortality from Hia was 23%.

Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae Serotype a Invasive Disease, Alaska, USA, 1983-2011. 2013, Bruce, Emerg Infect Dis

Before the vaccination, the incidence of Hib in Alaska was the highest in the world. Thanks to the vaccine, the number of Hib cases dropped sharply, but cases from other serotypes, mostly serotype A and noncapsular strains

Haemophilus influenzae

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in adults. 2000, Sarangi, Epidemiol Infect

After the start of the vaccination, the number of Hib cases among adults in England (15 and older) decreased, but the total number of cases of hemophilic infection increased due to a sharp increase in infections with non-capsular strains, especially among the elderly, with a mortality rate of 59%.

Haemophilus influenzae

Trends in Haemophilus influenzae type of infection in England and Wales: surveillance study. 2004, McVernon, BMJ

The incidence of Hib among adults in England has declined after the introduction of vaccination (due probably to collective immunity), reached a minimum in 1998, and in 2003 already returned to the pre-vaccination level.
The number of antibodies to Hib in adults decreased after the start of vaccination.
Among children, the same thing happened: first, the incidence of Hib declined sharply, and then, despite the high vaccination coverage, began to increase dramatically.
Since 1998, the number of cases among children has doubled every year, and most of the patients were sex awn vaccinated.

Haemophilus influenzae

Increasing incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in adults, Utah, USA. 2011, Rubach, Emerg Infect Dis

Vaccination reduced the number of Hib cases among children by 99%, but the incidence of hemophilic infection among adults increased 11.5-fold between 1998 and 2008. Most of the cases were in the serotype F and in the capsule-free strains.The mortality was 22%.

Haemophilus influenzae

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae in British Columbia: non-Hib and non-typeable strains causing disease in children and adults. 2011, Shuel, Int J Infect Dis

In 1989, 24 cases of Hib were reported in British Columbia before vaccination in Canada, 45-53 cases per year were recorded in 2008-2009, the incidence of serotype B decreased, and the incidence of serotype A.If children used to be ill earlier, now adults are sick too.

Haemophilus influenzae

The changing epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease, especially in persons> or = 65 years old. 2007, Dworkin, Clin Infect Dis

Between 1996 and 2004, the number of Hib cases in Illinois increased by 2.5 times, and among the elderly by 3.5 times.
The number of cases of infection with HQ-free increased by 657%.If in 1996, Hib's bespaksulnaya was responsible for 17.5% of the cases, in 2004 it was responsible already in 70.7% of cases, the lethality was 12.7%, and among the elderly - 20.6%. The mortality of serotype F among the elderly was 11.1%, and the serotype E - 38.5%.

Haemophilus influenzae

Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serotype f: clinical and epidemiologic characteristics in the H. influenzae serotype b vaccine era. The Haemophilus influenzae Study Group. 1996, Urwin, Clin Infect Dis

The incidence of serotype F increased 3.8-fold between 1989 and 1994, and constitutes 17% of all cases of hemophilia, and the mortality of this serotype is 30% among adults and 21% among children.

Haemophilus influenzae

Increase in the number of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b infections. 2005, Spanjaard, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd

The Netherlands, the incidence of Hib declined after vaccination began, reached a minimum in 1993, and then began to grow again, probably because the bacteria "natural booster" are much less likely to disappear, which leads to a weakening of immunity, and to increased susceptibility to infection. And maybe because that vaccination has destroyed strains with a thin capsule, and left strains with more thick capsule. More: [1], [2], [3].

Haemophilus influenzae

Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae diseases in Northwestern Ontario, Canada, 2010-2015. 2017, Eton, Int J Infect Dis

The incidence of serotype A (Hia) in Ontario is 76% higher than the incidence of Hib in the pre-vaccination era.

Haemophilus influenzae

A few more articles on replacing strains from serotype B to others: [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11].

Papilloma

Prevalence of HPV After the Introduction of the Vaccination Program in the United States. 2016, Markowitz, Pediatrics

Nature abhors a vacuum. By preventing girls from getting the infection from two or four strains of HPV, the vaccine only causes them to be replaced with other strains.
There is a decrease in prevalence of the four strains of HPV in young girls, but there is no change in the prevalence of HPV, taking into account all strains of the virus.

Papilloma

Shift in the prevalence of HPV types in cervical cytology specimens in the era of HPV vaccination. 2016, Fischer, Oncol Lett

Oncogenic strains of HPV, 16 and 18, have been replaced with other oncogenic strains: 31, 51, 53, 56 and 66.
Three more studies with the same conclusions in Italy, Netherlands and the USA.