UK

Physicians

Vaccinating health care workers during an influenza pandemic. 2012, Head, Occup Med Lond

41% of healthcare workers refused to vaccinate against swine flu during the 2009 pandemic. They believed that the vaccine was ineffective, and there were side effects, and in general, this infection usually passes easily.
57% of healthcare workers refused to get vaccinated for regular flu. (London, Great Britain)

Vitamin K

Vitamin K prophylaxis to prevent neonatal vitamin K deficient intracranial haemorrhage in Shizuoka prefecture. 1996, Nishiguchi, Br J Obstet Gynaecol

In Japan, the probability of intracranial hemorrhage was 1 in 4,000 newborns before the use of vitamin K. In Germany and the UK, where vitamin K is used, the probability of a hemorrhage was 1 per 30,000. The status of blood coagulation in infants was significantly higher, when nursing mothers were given vitamin K2 (15 mg/day from the 14th day after delivery for two weeks).

Vitamin K

Childhood cancer, intramuscular vitamin K, and pethidine given during labor. 1992, Golding, BMJ

Among those who received intramuscular injection of vitamin K, the risk of cancer was 2 times higher.The same result was obtained in another study of the same authors.
That is, preventing 30-60 cases of hemorrhagic disease will result in 980 The fact that evolution has allowed the development of vitamin K deficiency in normal breast-fed infants, which leads to a small risk of hemorrhagic disease, has always seemed physiologically perverse. The most likely explanation for this phenomenon is that the noun It is possible that the relative deficiency of vitamin K in the critical phase of rapid growth can protect vulnerable tissues from mutagenesis.

Meningococcal

Changes in bacterial meningitis. 1990, Carter, Arch Dis Child

The lethality of meningococcal infection in Scotland fell from 10.3% in 1946-61 to 1.2% in 1971-86. The incidence decreased from 7.9 to 5.3 per 100,000 children. The incidence of hemophilic infection increased 4-fold during this time, while the mortality rate fell from 19.2% to 3%.

Meningococcal

Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort study. 2006, Tully, BMJ

Intimate kisses with numerous partners are associated with an increased risk of meningococcal infection among adolescents 3.7 times. Premature birth also increased risk 3.7 times. Previous illness increased risk by 2.9 times. Visiting religious ceremonies is associated with a risk reduction in 11 times, and vaccination with a decrease in risk by 8 times. Here it is reported that marijuana is associated with an increased risk of meningococcal infection in 4.2 times, and visiting night clubs 3.3 times. Visiting picnics and dancing ey reduced the risk by 3-4 times.

Meningococcal

Effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine 4 years after introduction. 2004, Trotter, Lancet

In 1999, a conjugate vaccine was introduced in England from meningococcus (serogroup C) into the national vaccination schedule for babies at the age of 2, 3 and 4 months. The effectiveness of the vaccine in the first year after vaccination was 93%, but after a year the effectiveness became negative (-81%). Immunity after vaccination at a later age persists longer.

Meningococcal

Rise in Group W Meningococcal Carriage in University Students, United Kingdom. 2017, Oldfield, Emerg Infect Dis

In England, we recently began to vaccinate adolescents with a conjugate vaccine (from ACWY serogroups.) The authors tested the colonization of meningococcus before and after vaccination at the university, and it turned out that despite coverage of 71% vaccination, colonization increased from 14% to 46% , and serogroup colonization W increased 11-fold, from 0.7% to 8%.

Meningococcal

Limitations and strengths of spontaneous reports data. 1998, Goldman, Clin Ther

It is estimated that no more than 10% of serious side effects are reported in the UK, and 2% -4% of the non-serious side effects of medications.

The FDA receives less than 1% of suspected serious side effects. effects occur at the end of the second year of the drug on the market, after which the number of messages decreases, although the number of side effects does not change.

Tuberculosis

Oxford TB vaccine study calls into question selective use of animal data. 2018, Cohen, BMJ

MVA85A is a new tuberculosis vaccine designed to increase the effectiveness of BCG, and a clinical trial of this vaccine among 2,800 infants started in South Africa in 2009. The results published in 2013 revealed that the new vaccine is ineffective. clinical experiments on infants were carried out in mice, guinea pigs, cows and monkeys.In the funding applications, the researchers stated that according to animal experiments the vaccine was safe and effective, but the independent analysis published in 2015 the study found that the vaccine was not effective for animals in the 192 animals, the only tests showing increased efficacy were in mice, but they, unlike infants, received the vaccine nasally rather than parenterally, and the vaccine composition for them was In a macaques vaccine test, four of the six BCG vaccines survived, compared to one of the six surviving macaques, also vaccinated with a new vaccine, suggesting that the new vaccine reduces the effectiveness of BCG and is unsafe. All this was known research One and a half years before the start of tests on infants. Moreover, the researchers hid this information when they presented results at the conference, in applications for funding and in applications for the resolution of human trials. Parents whose babies participated in the vaccine trial were also forgotten to report.
All this seemed very strange to Peter Beverly, another researcher of the vaccine against tuberculosis, and he repeatedly lodged official complaints with the university. In response, the university closed his laboratory. The university also refused to provide BMJ with experimental protocols.
(All this happened in Oxford - the most prestigious university in the world.) What happens in less prestigious universities and laboratories of pharmaceutical companies can guess themselves.)

Hepatitis A

Is travel prophylaxis worth while? Economic appraisal of prophylactic measures against malaria, hepatitis A, and typhoid in travellers. 1994, Behrens, BMJ

Hepatitis A and typhoid vaccines for those who travel to endemic countries are not economically feasible, but the malaria pills are. Only 1 in 2,000 people gets infected with hepatitis A during travel, and in 90% of the cases the disease is mild. It is estimated that hepatitis A vaccination in England prevented 0.29 deaths in one year.

Hepatitis A

Outbreak of hepatitis A associated with men who have sex with men (MSM), England, July 2016 to January 2017. 2017, Beebeejaun, Euro Surveill

In 2016-17, major European cities were overwhelmed with hepatitis A outbreaks. The vast majority of cases were homosexuals. 37 cases were registered in England.

Anti-vaxxers

Differences in risk factors for partial and no immunization in the first year of life: prospective cohort study. 2006, Samad,

Non-vaccinating mothers are older and more educated than mothers who vaccinate. (United Kingdom)

Anti-vaxxers

Factors associated with uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and use of single antigen vaccines in a contemporary UK cohort: prospective cohort study. 2008, Pearce, BMJ

The higher the level of education, age and income, the more often parents refused the MMR, and chose a non-combined measles vaccine. (United Kingdom)

Chickenpox

Exposure to varicella boosts immunity to herpes-zoster: implications for mass vaccination against chickenpox. 2002, Brisson, Vaccine

After the infection, varicella virus remains in the neurons of the spinal ganglia in an inactive form, and a few decades later, due to the weakening of cellular immunity, it can re-activate and cause herpes zoster.
Hope Simpson in 1965 was the first one to suggest that being in contact with chickenpox patients reduces the risk of shingles. This phenomenon is called exogenous boosting. Incidentally, this is the same Hope-Simpson that first suggested that the epidemiology of influenza depends more on the sun, than on the virus.
One of the dangers of vaccination, which is usually disregarded, is that if being in contact with varicella patients actually reduces the risk of re-activation of the virus, then the mass vaccination will cause an increase in the incidence of shingles.
A study conducted in England in 1991 revealed that the incidence of herpes zoster is 25% lower among adults living with children. This figure is most likely underestimated, since many participants of the study that did not live with children at the moment, did so until recently. Exposure to varicella is estimated to provide protection from the shingles for an average of 20 years.
Based on this data, the authors built a mathematical model, and concluded that mass vaccination will cause a shingles epidemic, which will last 30-50 years. 50% of people aged 10 to 44 years will get shingles, and only 46 years later the incidence of shingles will decrease to the level of pre-vaccine era.

Chickenpox

Contacts with varicella or with children and protection against herpes zoster in adults: a case-control study. 2002, Thomas, Lancet

Contact with varicella patients is associated with a decrease in risk of herpes zoster by 71%. This figure is probably underestimated, since varicella is contagious before the onset of the rash.
Contact with shingles patients does not decrease the risk of shingles, because shingles is less contagious than chickenpox.
Pediatricians suffer from herpes zoster much less frequently than dermatologists and psychiatrists.

Chickenpox

Chickenpox, chickenpox vaccination, and shingles. 2006, Welsby, Postgrad Med J

UK does vaccinate against varicella for the following reasons:
1) Chickenpox is more dangerous in adulthood than in childhood. Mortality, as well as the risk of pneumonia and encephalitis due to varicella increases with age.
2) Vaccination will lead to an increase in neonatal and congenital varicella (since mothers would not get exposure in childhood).
3) Vaccination can lead to an increase in the incidence of shingles. It is known that an increase in chickenpox incidence among children under 5 years is associated with a decrease of shingles incidence among 15-44 years age group.
Therefore, UK is being cautious, and waits to see what happens in the countries that do vaccinate.
Most other European countries also do not vaccinate against varicella.

Chickenpox

NSAIDs and chickenpox. 2016, Gilbert, Br J Gen Pract

I recently graduated from a medical school and in the 6 years of studying, despite repeated encounters with varicella, I have never heard that anti-inflammatory drugs complicate the course of chickenpox. So I did not take the Daily Mail article, warning against the use of ibuprofen during chickenpox, seriously.
However, I learned that the Ministry of Health and other medical associations really do recommend avoiding ibuprofen during varicella.
It is strange that no one warned me about it during the whole period of my studies. Of course, the information is available, if you go looking for it, but since ibuprofen is such a common medicine, it would be beneficial to have this information covered more widely.

Pneumococcus

Invasive pneumococcal infection in South and West England. 1998, Smith, Epidemiol Infect

Between 1982 and 1992, the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis in England increased 2.3-fold.

Haemophilus influenzae

Antibody to Haemophilus influenzae type b after routine and catch-up vaccination. 2003, Trotter, Lancet

Children who were vaccinated against Hib in infancy had significantly fewer antibodies than children who were vaccinated after 1 year.

Haemophilus influenzae

Estimating Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine efficacy in England and Wales by use of the screening method. 2003, Ramsay, J Infect Dis

In the UK, Hib vaccination began in 1992, after which the incidence fell sharply, but began to rise again in 1999.
From 1993 to 2001, 443 cases of Hib were registered, of which 82% were fully vaccinated, the effectiveness of the vaccine was 56.7%.
The effectiveness of those who were vaccinated in infancy was lower than that of those vaccinated after a year.
The effectiveness of the vaccine fell 2 years after vaccination.
Efficacy in children , born after 2000 was lower than in children born before.
Efficiency in those who were vaccinated with combi nnoj vaccine DTap-Hib was lower than graft other vaccines.

Haemophilus influenzae

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in adults. 2000, Sarangi, Epidemiol Infect

After the start of the vaccination, the number of Hib cases among adults in England (15 and older) decreased, but the total number of cases of hemophilic infection increased due to a sharp increase in infections with non-capsular strains, especially among the elderly, with a mortality rate of 59%.

Haemophilus influenzae

Trends in Haemophilus influenzae type of infection in England and Wales: surveillance study. 2004, McVernon, BMJ

The incidence of Hib among adults in England has declined after the introduction of vaccination (due probably to collective immunity), reached a minimum in 1998, and in 2003 already returned to the pre-vaccination level.
The number of antibodies to Hib in adults decreased after the start of vaccination.
Among children, the same thing happened: first, the incidence of Hib declined sharply, and then, despite the high vaccination coverage, began to increase dramatically.
Since 1998, the number of cases among children has doubled every year, and most of the patients were sex awn vaccinated.

Haemophilus influenzae

Risk of vaccine failure after Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) combination vaccines with acellular pertussis. 2003, McVernon, Lancet

After the UK switched to acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP/Hib), almost a sevenfold increase in Hib cases was reported.

Influenza

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mortality, and incident cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancers, and fractures: a 13-y prospective population study. 2014, Khaw, Am J Clin Nutr

A prospective study of 14,000 people in the UK, followed by 13 years. The higher the vitamin D level, the lower the mortality rate, among those with a vitamin D level above 90 nmol/L, mortality was 34% lower than in people with a vitamin level of 30 nmol/L and lower, the risk of cardiovascular death was 38% lower, cancer 15% lower, respiratory disease 78% lower.

Rubella

Evolution of surveillance of measles, mumps, and rubella in England and Wales: providing the platform for evidence-based vaccination policy. 2002, Vyse, Epidemiol Rev

Among other things here, there is a graph of the number of rubella susceptible women of childrearing age in England from 1985 to 1998, which shows no significant change. Solid line represents nulliparous women, and the dotted line is for parous women.
Rubella vaccine was introduced in England in the 1970s for girls of the 11-13 years age group, and the MMR vaccine was introduced in 1988.

Rubella

Immunogenicity of the second dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and implications for serosurveillance. 2002, Pebody, Vaccine

2-4 years after receiving the first vaccine, 19.5% of children had measles antibodies below protective level, 23.4% of children had mumps antibodies below protective level, and 4.6% of children had rubella antibodies below protective level.
41% of children did not have protection against at least one of the diseases, which means that a second dose of the vaccine is needed. Similar results were obtained in other studies in the UK and in Canada.
Second dose of the MMR vaccine causes an increase in the levels of measles and rubella antibodies, but 2-3 years later they decrease back to the pre-vaccination levels. Similar results were recorded in other studies in Finland and in other counties.
The authors conclude that the level of antibodies in the blood correlates poorly with the level of protection against the disease.

Mumps

Prevention of mumps. 1980, BMJ

13 years later, BMJ wonders again whether the UK needs yet another vaccine for infants.
Mumps is not subject to registration, thus the number of cases is unknown, especially since 40% of mumps cases are asymptomatic. Perhaps a combination vaccine with measles is justifiable. This vaccine could be given to children when they start school, for those who have not yet had mumps or measles.
Would the 50% of parents, who agree to the measles vaccine today, agree to another vaccine in addition to it? Only if the unwarranted but widespread fear of infertility from orchitis will outweigh the British distrust of new vaccines. Otherwise, this vaccine will not be in demand.
However, even low vaccination coverage can lead to an increase in the number of adults susceptible to mumps. It is already happening in the US.
For someone who has not had mumps, the vaccine could be a blessing, but for society as a whole, it would be quite the opposite, as the current situation when 95% of adults are immune to mumps would change. This disease may be unpleasant, but it is rarely dangerous. An attempt to prevent it on a massive scale could lead to an increase in disease incidence in adults, with all the risks associated with it.

Mumps

A retrospective survey of the complications of mumps. 1974, J R Coll Gen Pract

Here is the analysis of 2,482 cases of mumps hospitalization in 1958-1969 in 16 hospitals in England. They constitute the majority of mumps cases that required hospitalization in the country. Half of the patients were 15 years old or older. Complications were recorded in 42% of all cases. Three patients died, but two of them had another serious underlying illness and mumps might not have had anything to do with the death, and the third patient was most probably misdiagnosed and did not even have mumps. The only complication, which may have been permanent, was deafness in five patients (four of them were adults).
Meningitis in mumps happens so often that some people believe it should not even be considered as a complication, but rather an integral part of the disease. In any case, there is a consensus that mumps meningitis is not dangerous and rarely has any consequences. It is confirmed by this study.
What is usually most feared is orchitis. There is a general fear of infertility from orchitis, but its probability is overestimated. Even though it is impossible to exclude, a small retrospective study did not detect infertility as a consequence of orchitis.
The authors conclude that there is no need for mass vaccination against mumps. It might make sense to vaccinate post-pubertal teenagers on admission to boarding school or the army. Even then, however, it should be remembered that 90% of the boys have already had mumps by the age of 14, which is why they should be checked for antibodies first, and only those who do not have the antibodies should be vaccinated.

Mumps

The effectiveness of the mumps component of the MMR vaccine: a case control study. 2005, Harling, Vaccine

Mumps outbreak in London. 51% of the patients had been vaccinated. The effectiveness of one dose of the vaccine is 64%. The effectiveness of two doses – 88%. This effectiveness is much lower than is stated in clinical trials, since immunogenicity (i.e. the amount of antibodies) is not an accurate biological marker of the vaccine effectiveness. Moreover, the vaccines might have been improperly stored, which could have caused them to lose their effectiveness.
The authors also analyze other studies of the mumps vaccine effectiveness. In the 60s, the effectiveness was 97%, in the 70s it was 73-79%, in the 80s – 70-91% and in the 90s – 46-78% (87% for the Urabe strain).

Mumps

Urabe strain had been used in Great Britain since 1988, and stopped being used in 1992, only after the manufacturers declared that they are stopping production. However, according to the published documents, authorities knew about the dangers of this strain in 1987 already.

Diphtheria

An Outbreak Of Diphtheria In A Highly Immunized Community. 1947, Fanning, BMJ

Diphtheria outbreak in a British school in 1946 (18 cases). All but two (or three) children have been vaccinated (which is probably the reason why no one died, the authors believe).
Among the 23 unvaccinated children, 13% got sick. Among the 299 vaccinated children, 5% got sick.
One of the unvaccinated children has actually been vaccinated, but more than ten years ago. If he is excluded, then the percentage of sick children among the unvaccinated goes down to 9%.
If the vaccinated children are divided into two groups: those who were vaccinated less than 5 years ago, and those who were vaccinated more than 5 years ago – the incidence rate is the same for both groups. Nonetheless, for those who were recently vaccinated the disease was milder than for those vaccinated a long time ago or those unvaccinated.
The authors conclude that the vaccine is not very effective without the subsequent booster shots and urge to get booster vaccines every three years, in addition to being vaccinated in infancy.

Diphtheria

Death from diphtheria in developed countries is so rare that every such case is widely reported in the media. In 2015, a boy died of diphtheria in Spain, and in 2008, a girl died in England. These seem to be the only deaths of children from diphtheria in developed countries in the last 30 years.

Tetanus

Tetanus in Injecting Drug Users, United Kingdom. 2006, Hahné, Emerg Infect Dis

Until 2003, tetanus was a rare disease in Great Britain, and mostly happened among the elderly. After 2003, drug users began to get infected with tetanus. In 2003, there were 35 cases of tetanus, and two of them died. The authors researched for common factors and found out that they got sick from infected heroin from Liverpool. The authors urge the doctors and prison staff to vaccinate drug users.

Whooping cough

Increase in pertussis may be due to increased recognition and diagnosis. 2012, Jenkinson, BMJ

An article by a British doctor states that, according to his long-term experience, whooping cough hasn't disappeared. In fact, after vaccination was implemented, whooping cough only disappeared from official records because doctors stopped diagnosing it.
This article reports that even though vaccination coverage against pertussis in England fell from 78% to 49% between the 1960s and the 1970s, whooping cough-related mortality during this same period decreased 3-fold.

Whooping cough

Effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or tetanus vaccination on allergies and allergy-related respiratory symptoms among children and adolescents in the United States. 2000, Hurwitz, J Manipulative Physiol Ther

The vaccinated had asthma twice as often as the unvaccinated. The authors believe that 50% of asthma cases (2.9 million) in US children and adolescents would be prevented if the DTP or tetanus vaccination was not administered. More: [1]

Whooping cough

Early childhood infection and atopic disorder. 1998, Farooqi, Thorax

In vaccinated with whole-cell vaccine, the risk of allergy was 76% higher. In those who took antibiotics in the first two years of life, the risk of allergy was 2 times higher.
Taking one course of antibiotics increased the risk of developing an allergy by 85%, two courses of antibiotics increased the risk 3-fold, and three courses of antibiotics increased the risk 8-fold.
Those who had measles and had not received the vaccine, had a 45% lower risk of developing an allergy (note: in this case there was no statistical significance).

Whooping cough

Severity of whooping cough in England before and after the decline in pertussis immunization. 1984, Pollock, Arch Dis Child

After the vaccination coverage in England fell sharply due to fear of the DTP vaccine, the number of pertussis cases and pertussis-related deaths fell 4-fold.

Unvaccinated

Vaccination and Allergic Disease: A Birth Cohort Study. 2004, McKeever, Am J Public Health

A study of 30 thousand children from the UK.
Children vaccinated against diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis/polio had asthma 14 times more often and eczema – 9 times more often than unvaccinated children.
Children vaccinated against measles/mumps/rubella had asthma 3.5 times more often and eczema – 4.5 times more often.
The numbers seem to speak for themselves, right? But these figures do not suit the authors, as they want to justify vaccinations. So they do two sleights of hand.
First, they determined that unvaccinated children visit doctors less. In their opinion, this does not mean that unvaccinated children get sick less often, but rather that their chance of being diagnosed is lower than of those vaccinated! Therefore, they make a correction. It turns out not to be enough, however.
They go further and divide all children into 4 groups by the number of visits to the family doctor, and then analyze each group separately. And, oh miracle, statistical significance among those who go to the doctors often disappears! But among those who went to see doctors less then 3-6 times, the vaccinated children had asthma and eczema 10-15 times more often than the unvaccinated ones anyway.
Authors, with a clear consciousness, conclude that vaccinations do not increase the risk of asthma or eczema.
Doctors, who only read the abstract (meaning almost everyone, since only few people read these articles in full), only learn of the conclusion and, with a calm heart, go on and continue to vaccinate children.
Such sleights of hand are often found in the studies that allegedly prove the safety of vaccinations.

SIDS

Vaccination and cot deaths in perspective. 1987, Roberts, Arch Dis Child

Два близнеца одновременно умерли через 3 часа после вакцинации DTP. Авторы заключают, что это случайно произошло после вакцинации, что согласно их подсчетам 9 младенцев в год должны умереть случайно в течение 24 часов после вакцинации в Великобритании, и что у близнецов риск СВДС в 3 раза выше. Они отмечают, что количество сообщенных смертей не доходит до ожидаемого. За 20 лет было сообщено лишь о 6 случаях смерти после DTP, но, вероятно, были и другие случаи. В течение 14 месяцев после этого широко освещенного случая, было зарегистрировано 5 случаев смерти в течение 24 часов после вакцинации.

SIDS

Defining the sudden infant death syndrome 1991, Willinger, Pediatr Pathol

В 1991 году определение СВДС было изменено. Например, вскрытие и расследование места смерти раньше не требовались, а теперь стали обязательными. Также стало необходимо выяснять медицинскую и семейную историю.
Однако, это определение до сих пор используется лишь в 35% случаев, в 7% случаев используется определение 1969 года, а в остальных случаях неясно, что используется. В Миссисипи уровень СВДС в 12 раз выше, чем в Нью Йорке. В некоторых штатах следователи не используют СВДС в качестве причины смерти, если есть подозрению на любую другую причину. Уровень СВДС может различаться в 3-4 раза от округа к округу в одном и том же штате. Еще: [1]

SIDS

В ответ на эту гипотезу в Великобритании была создана экспертная комиссия, которая в своем отчете заключила, что гипотеза неверна, а эти противопожарные материалы безопасны.
- Вместо грибка обнаружили бактерию, вместо арсина - триметиларсин, а вместо стибина - триметилсурьма, которые менее токсичны, и, вероятно, не выделяются при обычных температурах. Отчет Кука (другой комиссии) обнаружил, что концентрация сурьмы в печени и крови умерших от СВДС была выше обычной, и коррелировала с содержанием сурьмы в матрасах. Также обнаружилось, что уровень сурьмы у младенцев выше, чем у их матерей. Но экспертная комиссия заключила, что измерения были ненадежны. Уровень сурьмы в легких и крови умерших до родов младенцев был похож на уровень у взрослых, из чего следует, что матрасы тут ни при чем.
- В одном исследовании обнаружился повышенный уровень сурьмы в печени 52% умерших от СВДС, но лишь у 6% контрольной группы. Последующие исследования, однако, не обнаружили значительной разницы у умерших от СВДС и умерших от других причин.
- Комиссия подтвердила, что содержание сурьмы в волосах младенцев действительно выше, чем у их матерей, но не нашла корреляции с уровнем сурьмы в матрасах. Она заключила, что сурьму находят у здоровых младенцев тоже, что намекает на то, что она безопасна в этих концентрациях. Кроме того сурьма содержится во многих изделиях, например в тканях из полиэстера, то есть она находится в пыли, которой мы дышим и заглатываем. Если потереть полиэстеровую ткань об волосы, то на них остается сурьма, из чего также следует, что матрасы тут ни при чем.

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