Aluminum

Diphtheria

Immunological notes. XVII-XXIV 1926, Glenny, J Pathol

In 1926, Glenny and his group experimented with the diphtheria vaccine and tried to improve its effectiveness. They accidentally found that adding aluminum to the vaccine triggers a stronger immune response. Since then, aluminum is added to most inactivated vaccines.
Glenny was not interested in the safety of having aluminum in a vaccine 90 years ago, nor does it interest anyone today.

Aluminum

Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe? 2011, Tomljenovic, Curr Med Chem

Despite the fact that aluminum adjuvants have been used in vaccines for 90 years, it is still unknown why and how exactly aluminum causes such a strong immune response.
High toxicity and danger of aluminum consumed orally has been known since 1911 – when Dr William Gies published the results of seven years of research on aluminum in baking powder, preservatives and food coloring. Aluminum affects memory, concentration and behavior. (Aluminum is still used in baking powder and food preservatives).
Premature babies that were given formula containing aluminum developed worse than babies given formula without aluminum.
Aluminum that is used in kidney dialysis leads to dementia, seizures, psychosis, etc.
Aluminum is also associated with the Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, ASD and epilepsy.
The amount of aluminum in vaccines is dozens of times higher than the standards set by the FDA.
The article is worth reading in full.

Aluminum

Do the aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? 2011, Tomljenovic, J Inorg Biochem

The more vaccinations containing aluminum are given in the country, the more children with ASD there are.
The increase in the number of children with ASD in the US correlates with the increase in the number of aluminum adjuvants used. (r = 0.92, p<0.0001)
The authors use Hill’s criteria and conclude that the relationship between aluminum in vaccines and ASD is probably causal. This article is also worth reading in full.

Aluminum

Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration. 2009, Shaw, J Inorg Biochem

Mice were injected with aluminum hydroxide dose equivalent to human vaccines. Increased loss of motor neurons, reduced motor activity, poor spatial memory and other effects, similar to the symptoms of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and Gulf War syndrome, were observed. Two more similar studies: [1] [2]

Aluminum

Aluminum incorporation into the brain of rat fetuses and sucklings. 2001, Yumoto, Brain Res Bull

Pregnant rats were given subcutaneous injections of radioactive aluminum, which reached the embryo’s brain in just a couple of days. After the birth, the aluminum continued to accumulate in the brain, now passed on through the breast milk.

Aluminum

Association between maternal exposure to aluminum and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring. 2016, Liu, Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol

High level of aluminum in mother’s hair is associated with congenital heart defects of the child.

Aluminum

A study of the distribution of aluminum in human placental tissues based on alkaline solubilization with determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. 2010, Kruger, Metallomics

95% of women who gave birth had aluminum found in the placenta, 81% had it in the placental membrane, 46% - in the umbilical cord. This goes to the question of vaccinating pregnant women.

Aluminum

Macrophagic myofasciitis: characterization and pathophysiology. 2012, Gherardi, Lupus

A review article about Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF). In some patients, the aluminum adjuvants do not dissolve after the vaccination, but rather remain at the injection site and form an aluminum granuloma. Accompanying symptoms are usually myalgia (muscle pains), chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, as well as various autoimmune diseases.

Aluminum

Aluminum Should Now Be Considered a Primary Etiological Factor in Alzheimer's Disease. 2017, Exley, JAD reports

The exact cause of Alzheimer’s disease is still unknown, but aluminum plays a major part in it.
Another meta-analysis on this topic.

Aluminum

Link between Aluminum and the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease: The Integration of the Aluminum and Amyloid Cascade Hypotheses. 2011, Kawahara, Int J Alzheimers Dis

Even though this article is mainly about the role of aluminum in the Alzheimer’s disease, it also lists the currently known mechanisms of aluminum’s influence on biological processes.
Despite the fact that aluminum is one of the most common metals on Earth, in nature it is found only in the compounds with silicon and oxygen. Men only learned how to produce pure aluminum and create aluminum salts in the late nineteenth century.
Aluminum has no useful biological function.
Aluminum is a strong neurotoxin, which inhibits more than 200 biological processes.
Among other things, aluminum binds with ATP (which causes chronic fatigue), changes DNA, kills nerve cells, destroys the homeostasis of useful minerals, such as magnesium, calcium and iron, by mimicking them, etc.

Aluminum

Selective accumulation of aluminum in cerebral arteries in Alzheimer's disease (AD). 2013, Bhattacharjee, J Inorg Biochem

15. The closer the arteries are to the brain, the higher is the concentration of aluminum in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Patients with familial form of Alzheimer’s have been found to have incredibly high levels of aluminum in their brains.

Aluminum

Aluminum content of human semen: Implications for semen quality. 2014, Klein, Reproductive Toxicology

Aluminum is accumulated in semen, and the more there is, the worse is the quality of sperm. [1], [2 ], [3].
Aluminum also disrupts the ovarian function in rats. [1], [2].

Aluminum

Adverse events after immunization with aluminum-containing DTP vaccines: systematic review of the evidence. 2004, Jefferson, Lancet Infect Dis

And here is a systematic review and meta-analysis, which proves that aluminum in DTP vaccines is safe. I highly recommend reading this articles in full. After doing so, you opinion of science will never be the same again.
The authors identified 8 studies of aluminum adjuvants and did a meta-analysis of 5 of them.
The safety studies lasted from 24 hours to 6 weeks. The only side effects these studies were looking for were crying, screaming, pain, fever, seizure and redness.
The authors have concluded that although these studies were of very poor quality, there is no substitute for aluminum in vaccines. And even if the alternative were found, all the vaccines would need to be tested and patented again, which would put the vaccination programs worldwide in question.
Then comes the final, shocking conclusion: “Despite the lack of qualitative evidence, we do not recommend conducting any further research on this topic.”
This was the systematic review of all the current literature on the safety of aluminum in vaccines.
No, not exactly. It was not just an ordinary systematic review. It was a systematic review by Cochrane, the most respected medical science organization whose systematic reviews are recognized as being of the highest quality in the world. One could only imagine what the ordinary, lower quality systematic reviews look like.

Aluminum

In vivo absorption of aluminium-containing vaccine adjuvants using 26Al. 1997, Flarend, Vaccine

Although the aluminum adjuvants have been used since 1926, what exactly happens to them after they are injected into a muscle is unknown to science.
The researches took several rabbits and injected two of them with radioactive aluminum hydroxide, and the other two with aluminum phosphate. 28 days later the rabbits were killed and at that moment 94% of aluminum hydroxide and 78% of aluminum phosphate still remained in the rabbits’ bodies.
The authors examined several internal organs and concluded that little aluminum accumulated in each of them. However, it is unclear how exactly they determined that there was only ‘little’ aluminum, since there was no control group of rabbits that were not injected with any kind of vaccine in the experiment. The authors have not examined the rabbits’ bones (because they damaged them), even though it is a known fact that aluminum accumulates in the bones. Neither did they examine the muscles that were injected with aluminum.
The study only lasted 28 days, although it is known that aluminum stays in the body for years.
The authors concluded that the body successfully disposes of aluminum, regardless of the fact that most of the aluminum remained in the body, and it is completely unclear in which organs particularly.

Aluminum

Effect of routine vaccination on aluminum and essential element levels in preterm infants. 2013, Movsas, JAMA Pediatr

15 premature babies were given several vaccines with 1,200 μg of aluminum. This aluminum has not been found either in the blood or in the urine. Where it went remained unclear.

Aluminum

Critical analysis of reference studies on the toxicokinetics of aluminum-based adjuvants. 2017, Masson, J Inorg Biochem

A very interesting review article, which analyzes all the published studies of safety of aluminum adjuvants.
- Aluminum stimulates a humoral immune response and barely stimulates the cellular one;
- The FDA approved amount of aluminum per vaccine dose (0.85 mg) was determined empirically based on the effectiveness of this dose;
- Aforementioned study on rabbits is currently the only existing pharmacokinetic study on aluminum adjuvants on animals. Moreover, the adjuvants tested in this study differ from the adjuvants actually used in the vaccines;
- FDA’s conclusion that aluminum in vaccines is safe is based on two theoretical articles, which are analyzed in detail here. The ‘safe dose’ of aluminum for babies was extrapolated from the studies on mice that received aluminum orally. The authors conclude that comparing the toxicity of aluminum ions absorbed orally with the toxicity of aluminum salts administered intramuscularly is nonsense. More: [1].

Aluminum

Non-linear dose-response of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant particles: Selective low dose neurotoxicity. 2017, Crépeaux, Toxicology

Three groups of mice were injected with different doses of aluminum hydroxide (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of weight). The experiment showed that aluminum granulomas only formed in the muscles of the mice that received high doses. The mice that got small doses did not have granulomas, but the aluminum reached their brains and they had psycho-physiological disorders. The concentration of aluminum in the brains of the group that received 200 μg/kg was 50 times higher then that of the control group. The authors conclude that the simplified toxicity model, according to which the level of toxicity depends on the dose, does not work in case of the aluminum hydroxide.

Aluminum

Vaccine adjuvants: current state and future trends. 2004, Petrovsky, Immunol Cell Biol

Different types of adjuvants are analyzed here.
- One of the adjuvants used in vaccines is calcium phosphate. It has properties similar to those of the aluminum adjuvants, but since it is a molecule natural for the body, it does not cause neurological reactions and does not lead to allergic reactions.
- The cost of developing new adjuvants is exorbitantly high, and if the costs of developing vaccines justify themselves, the costs for developing adjuvants do not.
- If aluminum has not been used in vaccines for all these years, most likely it would not be allowed for use today for safety reasons.

Aluminum

Addressing Parents' Concerns: Do Vaccines Contain Harmful Preservatives, Adjuvants, Additives, or Residuals? 2003, Offit, Pediatrics

His arguments:
1) Aluminum adjuvants are safe, because they have been used in vaccines for over 70 years;
2) There’s aluminum in breast milk, baby formula, and in general – it is one of the most common metals;
3) There were experiments done on mice, when they were fed aluminum lactate and nothing happened to them.
The first argument is so ridiculous and anti-scientific that it is difficult to respond to it. 70 years ago half of the children did not have chronic diseases. And given the abundance of scientific research on the dangers of aluminum, this argument is simply false.
The following article responds to the second argument:

Aluminum

Infants' exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months. 2010, Dórea, J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol

Even one single Hepatitis B vaccine, which the baby gets on their first day of life, has 5 times more aluminum than they would get from 6 months of breastfeeding.
Moreover, it is impossible to compare aluminum and aluminum adjuvant, which is bound to the antigen, and which is much harder for the body to dispose of.
The aforementioned article from the 6th paragraph responds to the third argument. Offit fails to mention that the motor activity of 20% of mice from this experiment was significantly impaired. Not to mention that comparing intramuscular aluminum and aluminum in food (only 0.25% of which is absorbed) is impossible, just like comparing aluminum lactate with aluminum phosphate or aluminum hydroxide. Different aluminum salts have different toxicity.

Aluminum

Risk Assessment of Using Aluminum Foil in Food Preparation. 2012, Bassioni, Int J Electrochem Sci

If you use aluminum dishes, disposable aluminum pans or aluminum foil, then you probably should stop. More: [1].

Aluminum

Aluminum, antiperspirants and breast cancer. 2005, Darbre, J Inorg Biochem

- Aluminum in antiperspirants blocks the sweat glands preventing them from releasing sweat, which is what makes them so effective.
- The cause of 90% of breast cancer is environmental, not genetic.
- In 1926 only 31% of cancer tumors were located in upper outer part of the breast. In 1994 the numbers increased to 61%. This proportion is growing linearly each year.
- Genomic instability in outer part of the breast is constantly increasing.
- Among breast cancer patients, those who used antiperspirants were more often diagnosed at a younger age.
- Aluminum gets to the bloodstream from the skin after just one use of deodorant.
- Aluminum is genotoxic; it can alter the DNA. It also has an epigenetic effect.
- Aluminum blocks estrogen receptors.
- The following article report that 6 times more aluminum is absorbed through damaged skin, and since women often apply antiperspirant after shaving, it increases the absorption of aluminum.
- The concentration of aluminum in the outer part of the breast is much higher than that of the inner part.
- The concentration of aluminum in tumors is higher than in the surrounding tissue.
- The concentration of aluminum in breasts and breast milk is higher than in blood.
Breast cyst is also more common in the outer part of the breast and the concentration of aluminum in it is higher than in the blood. For some women the cyst dissolves on its own after discontinuing the use of antiperspirant.
However, the article is worth reading not only for women, since antiperspirants might also lead to prostate cancer.
The next article about antiperspirants that is worth reading is on the American Cancer Society website. Read it and decide for yourself, whether the society is set out to reduce the number of cancer patients, or the other way round. More: [1]

Aluminum

Gut: An underestimated target organ for Aluminum. 2016, Vignal, Morphologie

38% of orally consumed aluminum accumulates in the intestinal mucosa.
Even though the intestines absorb only a small amount of aluminum, 2% of aluminum entering the blood remains in the body and accumulates with age.
Aluminum is probably associated with inflammatory bowel disease.
Adults consume most of the aluminum with hot drinks (except coffee) and vegetables (except potato); children also consume it with pasta and confectionary; and babies get it from the formulas, which contain hundreds of times more aluminum than cow milk. Other sources of aluminum are dishes, packaging, antacids and analgesics.
Acid rains lower the pH of the soil, increasing the solubility of aluminum, and from such soil aluminum gets into water, plants and animals.

Aluminum

Antacids and dietary supplements with an influence on the gastric pH increase the risk for food sensitization. 2010, Pali-Schöll, Clin Exp Allergy

Aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate are also used as antacids (used to treat heartburn and some other gastrointestinal diseases, many of which are sold without prescription), which in turn leads to allergies.

Aluminum

Aluminum content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives. 2005, Saiyed, Food Addit Contam

Analysis of the amount of aluminum in different products.
There is a lot of aluminum in frozen pizzas, sausages, cheese, pancakes, baking powder, baking mixes, etc.
There is also much aluminum in beverages served in aluminum beer cans.
Rats that have been given drinks from aluminum cans had 69% more aluminum in their bones.
There is much aluminum in chocolate, very much in cacao, as well as tea and fruit juices.
There is much aluminum in cacao, chocolate, confectionery, baking mixes, biscuits and salty pretzels, pasta, etc.

Aluminum

Aluminum: a potential pro-oxidant in sunscreens/sunblocks? 2007, Nicholson, Free Radic Biol Med

Aluminum is found in large quantities in sunscreens. Since aluminum is an oxidant, it is highly likely that it contributes to the development of melanoma.

Aluminum

There is (still) too much aluminum in infant formulas. 2010, Burrell, BMC Pediatr

There is a lot of aluminum in baby formula. According to EPA standard, drinking water may contain up to a maximum of 200 µg of aluminum per liter. 15 of the tested baby formulas have from 176 µg to 700 µg of aluminum per liter.
Three years later the authors analyzed 30 more types of baby formula, with similar results.

Aluminum

Studies on aluminum leaching from cookware in tea and coffee and evaluation of the content in the toothpaste, baking powder and paan masala. 1997, Rajwanshi, Sci Total Environ

There is a lot of aluminum in toothpastes, as well as in tea.
Toothpaste with aluminum aggravates dermatitis (which was caused by vaccination).
Toothpaste with aluminum causes dental caries.
Aluminum in toothpaste plays an even bigger role in the occurrence of Alzheimer’s than the aluminum in water. 60% of all the toothpaste on the market contains aluminum.

Aluminum

Silicon-Rich Mineral Water as a Non-Invasive Test of the " Aluminum Hypothesis" in Alzheimer's Disease. 2013, Davenward, J Alzheimers Dis

Mineral water rich in silica Si(OH)4 removes aluminum from the body.
12 weeks of drinking this water led to cognitive improvements in some Alzheimer’s patients.
Judging by experiments on rats, curcumin might protect from the inflammatory effects of aluminum, and also omega-3, mung bean extract, moringa, melatonin, olive oil, folic acid, propolis, lecitin, selenium, taurine, viramin E and quercetin . More: [1]

Aluminum

Aluminum Involvement in Neurotoxicity. 2014, Fulgenzi, Biomed Res Int

Removing aluminum by chelation therapy in multiple sclerosis patients led to improvement of their symptoms. Patients with neuro-degenerative diseases and multiple sclerosis have much higher levels of aluminum than healthy people.

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