Factors associated with vaccination for hepatitis B, pertussis, seasonal and pandemic influenza among French general practitioners: a 2010 survey. 2013, Pulcini, Vaccine

27% of doctor’s families were not vaccinated against hepatitis B, 36% were not vaccinated against whooping cough, 23% were not vaccinated against influenza. (France)


Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of general practitioners towards measles and MMR vaccination in southeastern France in 2012. 2014, Pulcini, Clin Microbiol Infect

13% of doctors do not consider measles a dangerous disease. 12% of doctors consider the second dose of MMR to be useless.
33% of doctors do not believe that MMR vaccination should be mandatory for children under 2 years of age. (France)


Increased Risk for Meningococcal Disease Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United States, 2012-2015. 2017, Folaranmi, Clin Infect Dis

The risk of meningococcal infection among homosexuals is 4 times higher than that of heterosexuals. HIV-infected homosexuals have a 10-fold higher risk of meningococcal disease than uninfected homosexuals. 45% of meningococcal cases reported numerous partners and participation in anonymous sex.
Among homosexuals, 32% smoke (compared to 18% of adults in the US), and 48% use drugs (compared to 10% on average).
In New York, the risk of meningococcal infection among homosexuals was 50 times higher than, on average, in German and 13 times above, in Paris 10 times above, in Southern California 50 times higher. 24% of homosexuals are carriers of meningococcus compared with 6% among heterosexual women, among the homosexuals who recently had oral-anal contact, 43% were carriers.
Meningococcus was also detected in 4.5% of homosexuals in the anal channel. In 2016 there was a discovered a new strain of meningococcus that can be transmitted sexually.
CDC reports that in 2016, 57% of those meningococcal men over 16 years of age reported having a homosexual contact. More: [1] [2] [3].


In France, the Meningitec vaccine (conjugated from serogroup C) is used. At least 680 children have suffered from this vaccine. They sued the company and their lawyer ordered a laboratory test of the vaccine. It turned out that it contains nanoparticles of heavy metals such as titanium, lead and zirconium.


Environmental risk factors in paediatric inflammatory bowel diseases: a population based case control study. 2005, Baron, Gut

BCG vaccinated with Crohn's disease 3.6 times more often unvaccinated.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A outbreak in HIV-infected MSM and in PrEP-using MSM despite the high level of immunity, Lyon, France, January to June 2017. 2017, Charre, Euro Surveill

The outbreak of hepatitis A in Lyon in the first half of 2017. 46 cases, 38 of them men, 33 homosexuals, and 15 infected with HIV Most were vaccinated or had antibodies. According to the available model, 70% who have immunity to prevent hepatitis A infection among homosexuals.The authors conclude that 70% is not enough.
It is also reported that since it is possible to get hepatitis A from the reuse of needles, slamming (intravenous drug use during anal sex contact) - a practice that is gaining popularity among some groups of homosexuals may also increase the risk of the disease. More: [1], [2 ].


Rotavirus vaccines in France: because of the three infant deaths and too many serious side effects vaccines are no longer recommended for routine children immunization. 2015, Michal-Teitelbaum, BMJ

After the start of rotavirus vaccination in France, 508 side effects (of which 201 serious) and 47 intussusception were recorded, 2 infants died from intussusception, and one died from necrotizing enterocolitis. there was only one case of death from intussusception in France in vaccination.
Therefore, the rotavirus vaccine was not included in the national vaccination schedule and is not funded by the state.
In clinical studies, vaccines have not been established that about vaccination reduces overall mortality, neither in developed nor in developing countries.


After the beginning of pneumococcal vaccination in France, the number of cases of pneumococcal meningitis increased by 34% (from 0.93 to 1.25/100,000).


Rebound in the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis in northern France: effect of serotype replacement. 2010, Alexandre, Acta Paediatr

The incidence of pneumococcal meningitis among children under the age of 18 increased 2.2 times between 2005 and 2008. The incidence rate among children under the age of 2 increased 6.5 times, and the coverage of vaccination increased from 56% to 90% during this time.
In 2008, the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis compared to the pre-vaccination era (Northern France)


Waning immunity against mumps in vaccinated young adults, France 2013. 2016, Vygen, Euro Surveill

In 2013, 15 mumps outbreaks were registered in France. 72% of the cases had been vaccinated twice. The effectiveness of the vaccine was 49% for one dose and 55% for two doses.
Among those who had been vaccinated once, the risk of getting mumps increased by 7% for every year that had passed since the vaccination.
Among those who had been vaccinated twice, the risk of getting mumps increased by 10% for every year that had passed after the second dose.
Orchitis was observed in five men. One of them was unvaccinated, two had been vaccinated with one dose, and another two had been vaccinated twice.
Mumps is a mild disease, which passes on its own, but sometimes it can cause severe complications, such as orchitis, meningitis, pancreatitis or encephalitis, especially in adults. Complications from mumps are observed more often in adults and they are more severe than in children, especially among the unvaccinated.
In other countries, mumps outbreaks are also observed among the vaccinated. The reason for this is the decreasing effectiveness of the vaccine and the lack of natural boosters. Other reasons for the outbreaks could be the initial overestimation of the vaccine effectiveness, insufficient vaccination coverage, or existence of a strain that is not covered by the vaccine.
Outbreaks occurring among the vaccinated and the decreasing effectiveness, both lead to thoughts about a third dose of the vaccine. This kind of an experiment was conducted in the US during the outbreaks in 2009 and 2010. Both times the outbreak subsided a few weeks after the administration of the vaccine. However, the outbreaks always subside at some point, so it was unclear whether it had anything to do with the vaccination. Nonetheless, this and other experiments hint that a third dose of the vaccine might not be a bad idea. Moreover, during the vaccination campaigns in the US, the third dose had few side effects.
They wanted to introduce a third dose of MMR into the national immunization schedule in Netherlands, but changed their mind, since mumps rarely causes complications, and the vaccination coverage among adults is unlikely to be satisfactory.
Mumps outbreaks among the vaccinated, along with this study, led the Ministry of Health of France to recommend a third dose of MMR at times of outbreaks. Even though it is unknown whether the vaccine is effective for those already infected with the virus, it is quite possible that the vaccine will cause a decrease in the contagious period of the vaccinated patients.
The Dutch study determined that two thirds of cases during outbreaks are asymptomatic. The role of asymptomatic patients in the transmission of the disease remains unknown.
Future observations in France, and possibly other countries that would adopt the same recommendation, will help determine whether the third dose of MMR is effective during outbreaks.