Staphylococcus Aureus

Pneumococcus

Increase in bacteraemic pneumococcal infections in children. 1995, Baer, Lancet

Between 1992 and 1994, the incidence of pneumococcus in Finland increased twofold among children under two years of age, and 3 times among children under 16. The authors attribute this to the disappearance of Hib.

Pneumococcus

Rising rate of pneumococcal bacteremia at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. 1994, Foster, Pediatr Infect Dis J

Five years after the start of Hib vaccination, the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia in Philadelphia has doubled (from 38 to 73 cases per year). The incidence of hemophilic bacteremia has decreased from 34 to 9 cases per year, and the incidence of meningococcal bacteremia has not increased The incidence of pneumococcal meningitis has increased by 50% (from 5.2 to 7.6 cases per year), the incidence of hemophilic meningitis has decreased from 18 to 5.6 cases per year, and the incidence of meningococcal meningitis has not changed (3 cases in year).

Pneumococcus

Inhibitory and Bactericidal Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Streptococcus pneumoniae on Other Inhabitants of the Upper Respiratory Tract. 2000, Pericone, Infect Immun

In vitro, pneumococcus has a bactericidal effect on the haemophilus rod.Pneumococcus secretes hydrogen peroxide, which kills the hemophilic rod.Pneumococcus also has an inhibitory effect on the meningococcal bacterium, which also dies when exposed to hydrogen peroxide, although this requires a higher its concentration.
The production of pneumococcus hydrogen peroxide correlates with the concentration of oxygen in the environment.
Other bacteria that secrete hydrogen peroxide are lactobacilli and o Bacteria that are killed or inhibited by hydrogen peroxide are Staphylococcus aureus, gonococcus (a bacterium that causes gonorrhea), and diphtheria bacillus.

Pneumococcus

Seven-Valentine Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Healthy Children. 2014, Biesbroek, Emerg Infect Dis

In vaccinated from pneumococcus, there are fewer pneumococcal bacteria of non-vaccine serotypes in the upper respiratory tract, but more hemophilic rod and staphylococcus, as well as much more anaerobic bacteria (Veilonella, Prevotella, Bacteroidetes, Leptotrichia), Actinomyces, Rothia, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Megasphaera and Streptococcus It is known that some of these bacteria [increase the risk of otitis media.] Temporary bacterial imbalance also increases the risk of otitis media.
Those taking antibiotics had 4 times less Corynebacteria and Dolosigranulum, and 6.3 times more staph Ilococcus.

Pneumococcus

Microbial interactions during upper respiratory tract infections. 2008, Pettigrew, Emerg Infect Dis

Colonization with pneumococcus negatively correlates with haemophilic bacterial colonization, and colonization with golden staphylococcus.
Colonization by a hemophilic bacterium negatively correlates with colonization with pneumococcus, and with colonization with golden staphylococcus. The authors conclude that the elimination of pneumococcus and hemophilic rod because of vaccination, may increase the risk of otitis media due to colonization with golden staphylococcus, that the impact of this intervention strategy in public health can It is difficult to predict and that one should be careful in developing strategies for controlling upper respiratory colonization.

Pneumococcus

Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae is associated with pneumococcal vaccination in Italian children. 2015, Camilli, Vaccine

Colonization with pneumococcus among vaccinated and unvaccinated in Italy did not differ: the haemophilus influenza was much more common among the vaccinated.

Pneumococcus

Effect of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae among children in São Paulo, Brazil. 2016, Brandileone, Vaccine

After vaccination began, colonization with vaccine serotypes was significantly reduced and increased by a non-vaccine one.2-5 times more often than in unvaccinated people (Sao Paulo, Brazil)