Despite awareness of recommendations, why do not health care workers not immunize pregnant women? 2017, Gesser-Edelsburg, Am J Infect Control

Despite the fact that 93% of doctors are aware of Ministry of Health recommendation to vaccinate pregnant women against flu and whooping cough, only 70% of them follow these guidelines. One third of the physicians believes that both vaccines are either dangerous, or that their safety is questionable. 40% of the doctors who believe that these vaccinations are dangerous, would still recommend them to their patients. (Israel)


What lies behind the low rates of vaccinations among nurses who treat infants? 2012, Baron-Epel, Vaccine

After Israeli nurses had been asked for 3 months to receive vaccines against whooping cough, only 2% (two percent) consented to do so. The nurses in question have been employed by Mother and Child Centers, and their primary duty is to vaccinate children.
Most nurses do not trust the health authorities, and desperately resist compulsory vaccinations. They fear the vaccines adverse effects and assume the hazard of influenza and whooping cough to be less severe than of the vaccines.
They believe that the parents should have the choice whether to vaccinate their child or not, and they demand the same respect for their own rights.
The nurses distinguish between their work and personal lives. While those nurses' duty is to vaccinate other's children, they consider their own vaccination status to be their private business, and do not assume that informing the parents of their opinion about vaccinations or their own vaccination status is necessary.
The authors of the study concluded that the nurses who do the vaccinations are, in fact, opposing vaccinations. (Israel)

This is probably the most important study of all those presented herein. In most of the other studies, data was collected from answers of medical doctors to surveys. Doctors perfectly understand that they are expected to not refer to vaccinations in a negative way, therefore it is reasonable to assume that the real proportion of doctors who do not vaccinate their children is much higher. The data in this study on the other hand is not based on surveys but rather on factual immunization records. 98% of nurses whose main duty is to vaccinate children refuse to be vaccinated themselves!
Israeli doctors, notwithstanding, also refuse to be vaccinated against the flu.

Hepatitis A

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Twelve Years After the Implementation of Toddlers Vaccination: A Population-Based Study in Israel. 2017, Bassal, Pediatr Infect Dis J

Israel was the first country in the world to add hepatitis A vaccine to the national immunization schedule in 1999. Within three years, hepatitis A incidence decreased by more than 98% among the vaccinated, and by 95% among the general population.
Before the beginning of vaccination, 47% of the Jewish population had antibodies, and 12 years later it was already 67%. Among the Arab population, 83% had antibodies before the beginning of vaccination, and 88% had them 12 years later. That is, same as in Taiwan, it is not clear whether vaccination was the only factor responsible for reducing the incidence.


Rotavirus immunization and type 1 diabetes mellitus: A nested case-control study. 2014, Chodick, Pediatric Infectious Disease

Type 1 diabetes incidence among children under 18 years of age in Israel increased by 6% per annum between 2000 and 2008. Among children under 5 years of age, it increased by 104% in 6 years. The authors suggested that viral infections could be one of the factors in the disease, which mean that rotavirus vaccination might reduce the risk of diabetes. It turned out, however, that there were 7.4 times more vaccinated than unvaccinated among type 1 diabetes patients.


More Israeli Parents Refusing to Vaccinate Their Babies According to State Regulations. 04-06-2013,

University-educated parents were 2.1 times more likely to refuse vaccinations compared to parents with a high school education. Jewish parents were 4 times more likely to refuse to have their children vaccinated compared to Muslims, and Christian parents were 3.29 percent more likely to refuse than Muslim parents.
The older the mother, the more likely the refusal to vaccinate. (Israel)

Haemophilus influenzae

Pediatric invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections in Israel in the era of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: a nationwide prospective study. 2014, Bamberger, Pediatr Infect Dis J

After the introduction of vaccination, H. influenzae incidence in Israel decreased by 90% by 1996, and remained low in the subsequent years.

Haemophilus influenzae

Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders. 2011, Richmand, Med Hypotheses

For a long time I doubted about the vaccinations from Hib and pneumococcus, because these diseases can really be dangerous.The fact that I personally put the final cross on these vaccinations was the following article published in a rather marginal journal specializing in hypotheses It seems that even for this marginal magazine, the article was too marginal, and accompanied by an editorial article in which they write that, despite , that the theme of the connection between vaccines and autism is already worn to holes and a denial bent, and that although the author of the article is not a scientist at all, his hypothesis is, nevertheless, quite plausible, and it should be checked.

I highly recommend reading this article in full.
Editorial article is also worth reading.
Conjugated vaccines radically change immunological response to carbohydrate antigens In the absence of a conjugated vaccine, carbohydrate antigens usually do not induce an immune response of T cells, but induce a weaker response (T-cell independent). This is due to the fact that B2 cells do not synthesize antibodies without the signal of T-helper cells. In order for this to happen, the B2-cell, and its related T-helper cell, should recognize the same, or similar epitope. But since T cells recognize only protein epitopes, T helper cells are usually able to activate B2 cells in response to protein antigens. In response to bacterial capsular polysaccharides, the immune system forms a response through cells B1 and MZB (Marginal zone B). B1 cells do not begin to react to bacterial carbohydrate antigens until 18-24 months, and their response does not fully mature until about 5 years of age. Therefore, infants and young children are unable to respond effectively to capsular bacteria. Conjugated vaccines use the fact that B2 cells and their related T helper cells do not have to respond to an identical epitope, but rather recognize closely related epitopes. Although the mechanisms by which conjugate vaccines work are not fully understood, it is believed that antigen-presenting cells, treat the combined protein carrier and carbohydrate hapten, which leads to recognition of the protein carrier by T-helper cells, and recognition of carbohydrate antigens by B2 cells. That is, conjugated vaccines change the immunological response to carbohydrate antigens in infants and young children, from a hypo-sensitive to a full T cell response.
Because antibodies against carbohydrate antigens are often autoreactive with their own carbohydrates, the differentiation of B cells to B2 cells can lead to an autoimmune reaction. Therefore, B cells against carbohydrate antigens are carefully regulated by the immune system. Antibodies to native carbohydrates are associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, myocarditis and rheumatic heart disease, Sydenham's chorea, and children's autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS).
Unlike antibodies produced by B2 cells, antibodies produced by B1 and MZB cells are short-lived and low-affinity, and conducted to an autoimmune reaction with
Autism has an increased level of antibodies to nervous structures and an increased level of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain, which indicates that autoimmune and neuroinflammatory processes can play a role in some cases of autism.
Because myelinization (the formation of an insulating nerve fibers) is most intense during the first 9 months of life, and continues in early childhood, neuronal development in infants and young children can be particularly vulnerable to self-reactive antibodies, including those that react with glycoproteins in myelin sheaths.

The first conjugate vaccine (from Hib) appeared in the US in 1988, and was later licensed in most other developed countries, including Denmark in 1993, and Izr ail, where it was licensed in 1992, and introduced into the national vaccination calendar in 1994.
The incidence of autism began to rise dramatically in the US since births in the middle of 1987. In Denmark and Israel, the jump in autism began about 5 years later.
In 1990, the vaccine was licensed to infants from the age of two months, which may explain the further increase in autism.Another explanation for the increase in autism in the mid-90s could be a change in the protein carrier used in the vaccine, which made her more immune gene. If the Hib vaccine is an autism trigger, then an increase in its immunogenicity and a change in the binding site may increase the likelihood of autism.
The licensing of the pneumococcal vaccine in 2000 may partially explain the further increase in autism. Children born in 1995 were the first to be vaccinated against pneumococcus, and this is consistent with CDC data, according to which the level of autism in 1992-1994 did not change, and in 1998 autism was already 57% higher than in 1994, m.
In Denmark, the Hib vaccine was licensed in 1993, but immediately followed by an aggressive vaccination campaign for children, starting in 1988, which coincides with the growth of autism among those born in 1988 and later. > In Israel, the number of children receiving disability benefits due to autism did not change from 1972 to 1995. But from 1996 to 1998, their number increased 5-fold, which is explained by this hypothesis. In 2004, 11% of the beneficiaries were born in 1985-89 (before vaccine licensing), 21.1% were born in 1990-94 (the beginning of vaccination), and 37% were born in 1995-99 (immediately after the vaccination was introduced National calendar). The immune system in response to the carbohydrate membrane of capsular bacteria produces antibodies through B1 and MZB cells in adults, and in children older than 5 years. But children under 5 years of age react poorly to carbohydrate antigens. Conjugated vaccines consist of a protein carrier attached to a carbohydrate antigen, and are able to circumvent this restriction of the immune system to carbohydrate antigens in children. Due to the protein carrier, these vaccines can induce the production of antibodies by B2 cells.
The development of antibodies to carbohydrate antigens via B2 cells is a significant departure from the natural paradigm in which B1 and MZB cells usually produce short-lived antibodies against carbohydrate antigens, and B2 cells produce more long-living against protein antigens. In addition to the fact that the immune system of children under 5 years of age reacts poorly to capsular bacteria, the maternal IgM and IgG2 antibodies do not pass well the placenta, from which it follows that the embryos are probably also not protected from capsular bacteria. From the point of view of evolution, this is quite unexpected. It is possible that this evolutionary flaw is accompanied by a compensatory evolutionary advantage. One possible explanation is that antibodies to carbohydrate antigens can be cross-reactive with neuronal glycoproteins, and a fine balance has been achieved, by evolution, between evolutionary protection against capsular bacteria and the need for development of the nervous system. This is consistent with the fact that myelination begins with infancy, and lasts until early childhood, which coincides with the period during which the immune system is hypo-sensitive to carbohydrate antigens. Moreover, the period during which the immune system is least sensitive to carbohydrate antigens corresponds to the period of the most intense myelination. It is possible that antibodies to carbohydrates not only interfere with the development of the nervous system in infants and young children, but their negative effects are strengthened by a stable a response of the immune system induced by conjugated vaccines, which significantly disturbs the balance achieved by evolution.


Mumps outbreak in Israel's highly vaccinated society: are two doses enough? 2012, Anis, Epidemiol Infect

A mumps outbreak in Israel (over 5,000 cases). 78% had been fully vaccinated. Mostly teenagers and adults got sick. In other countries (Austria, USA, Netherlands, Great Britain) mumps outbreaks were also observed among teenagers and college students, whereas in countries where there is no vaccination against mumps, children aged 5-9 years got sick.
Despite the high vaccination coverage (90-97%), mumps antibodies were found in only 68% of the population.
The authors report that the recent mumps outbreaks have been caused by the genotype G virus, whereas the vaccine contains genotype A. However, they do not believe that it is related to the outbreaks and suggest introducing a third dose of the vaccine.


Death from diphtheria in developed countries is so rare that every such case is widely reported in the media. In 2015, a boy died of diphtheria in Spain, and in 2008, a girl died in England. These seem to be the only deaths of children from diphtheria in developed countries in the last 30 years.


Naturally Acquired Immunity to Tetanus Toxin in an Isolated Community. 1985, Matzkin, Infect Immun

There is a complete medical consensus on that natural immunity against tetanus is impossible, and only a vaccine can prevent the disease.
The authors ran blood tests of two hundred randomly selected immigrants from Ethiopia to Israel and found tetanus antibodies in 98% of them. 30% of them had the level of antibodies that is considered protective (above 0.01 UI/ml). None of them have been vaccinated.
The amount of antibodies increased with age. The authors concluded that natural immunity is produced from continuous contact with the bacteria.


Tetanus immunity in kibbutz women. 1989, Leshem, Isr J Med Sci

Researchers ran blood tests of 120 randomly selected women living in Israeli kibbutzim. All of them had sufficient levels of antibodies against tetanus toxin, despite the fact that 12.5% of them had never been vaccinated.
Many of them were not fully vaccinated (from 6% among the young to 68% among the elderly).

Whooping cough

Pertussis Infection in Fully Vaccinated Children in Day Care Centers, Israel. 2000, Srugo, Emerg Infect Dis

While there are hundreds of case reports for different vaccines, we have not yet cited any until now. This case occurred in the year 2000, when a whole-cell (i.e., more effective) vaccine was administered to a 2-month-old child in Israel. Despite the entire family (mother, aunt and three brothers - 2, 5 and 11 years old) being fully vaccinated, the child died of whooping cough at an age of 4 months. Moreover, both younger brothers who were at kindergarten had also been fully vaccinated with four doses. The mother of the child developed a cough that lasted for three consecutive months. The two other brothers also coughed heavily, and although the 18-year-old aunt who lived with them did not cough, she was also ill. In the end, it turned out that the whole family – five people - was infected with pertussis. In addition, five children from both kindergartens (11%) were also infected, although only two of them fell under the new definition of whooping cough as stated by the WHO. The authors of this study concluded that the pertussis vaccination does not fully protect children from whooping cough, that its effectiveness does not even reach into early childhood, and that vaccinated children act as a "quiet reservoir" of infection in current society.

Hepatitis B

In Israel, since 2005 the Israeli vaccine Sci-B-Vac has been used. only in the center of Israel and in the south (because the entire market can not be given to one producer).In July 2015, this vaccine was withdrawn. According to a statement by the Ministry of Health, it was recalled because the ampoules arrived on the machine that glued the labels too quickly, which could theoretically result in micro-cracks and bacterial contamination. the population was asked not to worry, but the vaccine was withdrawn.Two years have passed since then, but the vaccine did not return to the market, and probably could not solve the problem of sticking labels.

Hepatitis B

Sci-B-Vac is a third-generation vaccine, the first generation was a live vaccine, the second generation is a recombinant (genetically modified) vaccine containing virus-like particles. The third generation vaccine contains two more antigens, and therefore gives more strong immune response.
The only published clinical trial of the vaccine included 150 children. The vaccine did not receive a permission from the FDA. The Ministries of Health Committee report which allowed the vaccination in Israel, somewhere disappeared.
Many parents argue that the children because of this vaccination had strong side effects, developmental delays, etc. What is not very surprising, since it contained twice as much aluminum, in addition, it has three antigens instead of one, which further increases the risk of autoimmune reaction. Why this will be dismantled in another part.


Reduced rate of side effects associated with separate administration of MMR and DTaP-Hib-IPV vaccinations. 2009, Shneyer, Isr Med Assoc J

Side effects of vaccination were observed in 57% of children who received MMR and pentavalent vaccine simultaneously, but only in 40% among those, who only received the MMR vaccine.
Authors conclude that, perhaps, the current policy on simultaneous vaccinations should be reviewed.


A prevalence estimate of pervasive developmental disorder among immigrants to Israel and Israeli natives- a file review study. 2004, Kamer, Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol

The risk of pervasive developmental disorder in children of Ethiopian immigrants, born in Israel, is much lower, than in children of non-Ethiopians. However, among the Israeli children born in Ethiopia, there was not a single case of pervasive developmental disorder (among 11,800 children). The authors conclude that childbirth in Israel, an industrialized country, is a marker of an environmental risk of autism.


A sharp rise in the incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults in Israel. 2009, Ariad, Isr Med Assoc J

Since 1960, the incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma in Israel has significantly increased.
The authors believe that this is due to the fact that after the start of measles vaccination, more people get measles in adulthood. The authors found measles antibodies in 54% of the biopsies in which Hodgkin's lymphoma was diagnosed. According to their hypothesis, measles virus can act as an oncogenic factor. Other laboratories, however, have failed to found an association between measles virus and Hodgkin's lymphoma.


Oral poliovaccine: will it help eradicate polio or cause the next epidemic? 2006, Shulman, Isr Med Assoc J

Тех, кто долго выделяет вакцинный вирус после прививки, конечно, не всего 40 человек на весь мир, а намного больше. Просто мало кому делают постоянный анализ кала после прививки.
В этом исследовании авторы анализировали канализационные воды в Израиле, и постоянно находили там мутировавший вирус. Они считают, что вряд ли они каждый раз находили вирус лишь от одного человека в канализации, которая обслуживает 800,000 человек. Они также думают, что даже после искоренения полиомиелита вакцинацию нужно будет продолжать, пока все эти люди не перестанут выделять вирус.


Estimation of polio infection prevalence from environmental surveillance data. 2017, Berchenko, Sci Transl Med

Последний случай полиомиелита в Израиле был в 1988 году. Поэтому в 2005-м отменили OPV, и оставили только IPV.
С 1989 года министерство здравоохранения мониторит канализацию, и ищет в ней полиовирус. И вот, в 2013 году в канализации бедуинского города Рахат, а потом и в канализации некоторых других городов, вирус обнаружился. ВОЗ забила тревогу, поэтому министерство здравоохранения решило провести кампанию вакцинации, и привить живой вакциной всех детей младше 10 лет.
Поскольку известно, что живая вакцина приводит иногда к параличу, и считается, что за вакцинный паралич ответственнен главным образом серотип 2, а также из-за того, что серотип 2 считается искорененным, его из трехвалентной вакцины изъяли, и начали прививать двухвалентной вакциной. Израиль был первой в мире страной, перешедшей на двухвалентую вакцину.


Causality assessment of serious neurologic adverse events following the bOPV national vaccination campaign in Israel. 2016, Tasher, Isr Med Assoc J

Этой вакциной были привиты около миллиона детей в Израиле. (Врачи и медсестры, однако, отказывались прививаться и от полиомиелита, и от других болезней. Особенно ревностно отказывались более опытные врачи).
После этого у троих детей был диагностирован синдром Гийена-Барре, а еще у одного острый рассеянный энцефаломиелит. Это вызвало внимание общественности, и могло привести к срыву кампании вакцинации. Поэтому эти случаи были быстро проанализированы. Полиовируса в стуле у детей не нашли, в медицинской литературе не нашелся ни один случай причинно-следственной связи между бивалентной вакциной и энцефаломиелитом, а количество случаев Гийена-Барре не было повышено среди привитых, поэтому авторы заключили, что вакцинация тут не при чем, а виноват, скорее всего, кампилобактер.


Guillian-Barré Syndrome and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis related to the Bivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine. 2016, Tomljenovic, Isr Med Assoc J

В этой статье подробно разбираются все аргументы авторов предыдущей статьи. Среди прочего:
- в настоящее время установлено, что существующий иммунитет к одному патогену может основательно изменить реакцию на несвязанные патогены. Это явление известно как гетерологичный иммунитет, и хотя он может благотворно влиять на защитные иммунные реакции, он также может привести к тяжелой иммунопатологии;
- причинно следственная связь между OPV и синдромом Гийена-Барре была установлена IOM еще в 1994 году;
- в Финляндии была зарегистрирована вспышка синдрома Гийена-Барре после похожей кампании вакцинации;
- диагноз вакцинного полиомиелита вполне может быть поставлен и без полиовируса, который к тому времени уже может перестать выделяться;
- случаи энцефаломиелита после OPV были описаны и ранее;
- кампилобактер может привести к синдрому Гийена-Барре у взрослых, но не у детей.


Paralytic poliomyelitis associated with bivalent oral polio vaccines occurs at a rate over up to 70-fold higher than monovalent oral polio vaccine in Hungary. 2011, Estívariz, Am J Epidemiol

Двухвалентная вакцина от полиомиелита вызывала ВАПП в 70 раз чаще, чем моновалентная.


Association between carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in children. 2004, Regev-Yochay, JAMA

Another study in Israel also found that colonization of pneumococcus, especially vaccine serotypes, negatively correlates with colonization of Staphylococcus aureus in children.


Initial Effects of the National PCV7 Childhood Immunization Program on Adult Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Israel. 2014, Regev-Yochay, PLoS One

Two years after the introduction of vaccination, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections among adults in Israel has not changed.

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