Israel

Physicians

Despite awareness of recommendations, why do not health care workers not immunize pregnant women? 2017, Gesser-Edelsburg, Am J Infect Control

Despite the fact that 93% of doctors know that the Ministry of Health recommends vaccinating pregnant women for flu and whooping cough, only 70% follow these guidelines. A third of doctors believe that both vaccinations are dangerous, or that their safety is questionable. 40% of doctors from those who believe that these vaccinations are dangerous, still recommend them to their patients. (Israel)

Physicians

What lies behind the low rates of vaccinations among nurses who treat infants? 2012, Baron-Epel, Vaccine

After Israeli nurses were asked to vaccinate against whooping cough at 3 months, only 2% (two percent) deigned to do so. And we are talking about nurses working in mother and child centers (tipat halav), that is, those whose main role is to vaccinate children.
Most nurses do not trust health authorities, and desperately resist compulsory vaccinations.
They believe that parents should have the choice to vaccinate a child or not, and they demand the same respect for their rights.
Nurses share work and personal life. The fact that their work is to inculcate children is one thing. And whether they are vaccinated themselves or not, it is their own business, and they do not consider it necessary to inform parents of their opinion about vaccinations, or whether they themselves are vaccinated.
The authors of the study concluded that the nurses who do the vaccinations are, in fact, anti-vaccinations. (Israel)

This is probably the most important study of all presented here. In almost all other studies, data was collected from surveys of doctors. Doctors perfectly understand that they should not negatively react about vaccinations, therefore it is logical to assume that the real number of doctors who do not vaccinate their children is much higher. The data in this study is real, they are not based on surveys. 98% of nurses whose main role is to vaccinate children refuse to be vaccinated themselves!
Israeli doctors, however, also refuse to be vaccinated against the flu.

Hepatitis A

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Twelve Years After the Implementation of Toddlers Vaccination: A Population-Based Study in Israel. 2017, Bassal, Pediatr Infect Dis J

Israel was the first country in the world to add the hepatitis A vaccine to the national vaccination calendar in 1999. For three years, the incidence of hepatitis A fell by more than 98% among vaccinated children and by 95% among the entire population Before vaccination, 47% of the Jewish population had antibodies, and after 12 years they were already at 67% .In the Arab population, 83% had antibodies before vaccination, and after 12 years they were 88%. , as well as in Taiwan, not the fact that only the vaccine was responsible for reducing the incidence of disease.

Rotavirus

Rotavirus immunization and type 1 diabetes mellitus: A nested case-control study. 2014, Chodick, Pediatric Infectious Disease

The incidence of type 1 diabetes among children under the age of 18 in Israel increased by 6% per year between 2000 and 2008. And among children under 5 years of age, it increased by 104% in 6 years, the authors suggested that one of the factors of the disease are viral infections, which means that vaccination against rotavirus may reduce the risk of diabetes. However, it turned out that vaccinated people developed diabetes the first type is 7.4 times more unvaccinated.

Anti-vaxxers

More Israeli Parents Refusing to Vaccinate Their Babies According to State Regulations. 04-06-2013,

Mothers with an academic education are twice as likely to refuse vaccinations.
Jews are 4 times more likely to refuse vaccinations than Muslims.
The older the mothers, the more often they refuse vaccinations. (Israel)

Pneumococcus

Association between carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in children. 2004, Regev-Yochay, JAMA

Another study in Israel also found that colonization with pneumococcus, especially vaccine serotypes, negatively correlated with colonization of S. aureus in children.

Pneumococcus

Initial Effects of the National PCV7 Childhood Immunization Program on Adult Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Israel. 2014, Regev-Yochay, PLoS One

Two years after the start of vaccination, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections among adults in Israel has not changed.

Haemophilus infection

Pediatric invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections in Israel in the era of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: a nationwide prospective study. 2014, Bamberger, Pediatr Infect Dis J

In Israel, after the onset of vaccination, the incidence of hemophilic infection fell by 90% by 1996, and remained low in subsequent years.

Haemophilus infection

Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders. 2011, Richmand, Med Hypotheses

For a long time I doubted about the vaccinations from Hib and pneumococcus, because these diseases can really be dangerous.The fact that I personally put the final cross on these vaccinations was the following article published in a rather marginal journal specializing in hypotheses It seems that even for this marginal magazine, the article was too marginal, and accompanied by an editorial article in which they write that, despite , that the theme of the connection between vaccines and autism is already worn to holes and a denial bent, and that although the author of the article is not a scientist at all, his hypothesis is, nevertheless, quite plausible, and it should be checked.

I highly recommend reading this article in full.
Editorial article is also worth reading.
Conjugated vaccines radically change immunological response to carbohydrate antigens In the absence of a conjugated vaccine, carbohydrate antigens usually do not induce an immune response of T cells, but induce a weaker response (T-cell independent). This is due to the fact that B2 cells do not synthesize antibodies without the signal of T-helper cells. In order for this to happen, the B2-cell, and its related T-helper cell, should recognize the same, or similar epitope. But since T cells recognize only protein epitopes, T helper cells are usually able to activate B2 cells in response to protein antigens. In response to bacterial capsular polysaccharides, the immune system forms a response through cells B1 and MZB (Marginal zone B). B1 cells do not begin to react to bacterial carbohydrate antigens until 18-24 months, and their response does not fully mature until about 5 years of age. Therefore, infants and young children are unable to respond effectively to capsular bacteria. Conjugated vaccines use the fact that B2 cells and their related T helper cells do not have to respond to an identical epitope, but rather recognize closely related epitopes. Although the mechanisms by which conjugate vaccines work are not fully understood, it is believed that antigen-presenting cells, treat the combined protein carrier and carbohydrate hapten, which leads to recognition of the protein carrier by T-helper cells, and recognition of carbohydrate antigens by B2 cells. That is, conjugated vaccines change the immunological response to carbohydrate antigens in infants and young children, from a hypo-sensitive to a full T cell response.
Because antibodies against carbohydrate antigens are often autoreactive with their own carbohydrates, the differentiation of B cells to B2 cells can lead to an autoimmune reaction. Therefore, B cells against carbohydrate antigens are carefully regulated by the immune system. Antibodies to native carbohydrates are associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, myocarditis and rheumatic heart disease, Sydenham's chorea, and children's autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS).
Unlike antibodies produced by B2 cells, antibodies produced by B1 and MZB cells are short-lived and low-affinity, and conducted to an autoimmune reaction with
Autism has an increased level of antibodies to nervous structures and an increased level of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain, which indicates that autoimmune and neuroinflammatory processes can play a role in some cases of autism.
Because myelinization (the formation of an insulating nerve fibers) is most intense during the first 9 months of life, and continues in early childhood, neuronal development in infants and young children can be particularly vulnerable to self-reactive antibodies, including those that react with glycoproteins in myelin sheaths.

The first conjugate vaccine (from Hib) appeared in the US in 1988, and was later licensed in most other developed countries, including Denmark in 1993, and Izr ail, where it was licensed in 1992, and introduced into the national vaccination calendar in 1994.
The incidence of autism began to rise dramatically in the US since births in the middle of 1987. In Denmark and Israel, the jump in autism began about 5 years later.
In 1990, the vaccine was licensed to infants from the age of two months, which may explain the further increase in autism.Another explanation for the increase in autism in the mid-90s could be a change in the protein carrier used in the vaccine, which made her more immune gene. If the Hib vaccine is an autism trigger, then an increase in its immunogenicity and a change in the binding site may increase the likelihood of autism.
The licensing of the pneumococcal vaccine in 2000 may partially explain the further increase in autism. Children born in 1995 were the first to be vaccinated against pneumococcus, and this is consistent with CDC data, according to which the level of autism in 1992-1994 did not change, and in 1998 autism was already 57% higher than in 1994, m.
In Denmark, the Hib vaccine was licensed in 1993, but immediately followed by an aggressive vaccination campaign for children, starting in 1988, which coincides with the growth of autism among those born in 1988 and later. > In Israel, the number of children receiving disability benefits due to autism did not change from 1972 to 1995. But from 1996 to 1998, their number increased 5-fold, which is explained by this hypothesis. In 2004, 11% of the beneficiaries were born in 1985-89 (before vaccine licensing), 21.1% were born in 1990-94 (the beginning of vaccination), and 37% were born in 1995-99 (immediately after the vaccination was introduced National calendar). The immune system in response to the carbohydrate membrane of capsular bacteria produces antibodies through B1 and MZB cells in adults, and in children older than 5 years. But children under 5 years of age react poorly to carbohydrate antigens. Conjugated vaccines consist of a protein carrier attached to a carbohydrate antigen, and are able to circumvent this restriction of the immune system to carbohydrate antigens in children. Due to the protein carrier, these vaccines can induce the production of antibodies by B2 cells.
The development of antibodies to carbohydrate antigens via B2 cells is a significant departure from the natural paradigm in which B1 and MZB cells usually produce short-lived antibodies against carbohydrate antigens, and B2 cells produce more long-living against protein antigens. In addition to the fact that the immune system of children under 5 years of age reacts poorly to capsular bacteria, the maternal IgM and IgG2 antibodies do not pass well the placenta, from which it follows that the embryos are probably also not protected from capsular bacteria. From the point of view of evolution, this is quite unexpected. It is possible that this evolutionary flaw is accompanied by a compensatory evolutionary advantage. One possible explanation is that antibodies to carbohydrate antigens can be cross-reactive with neuronal glycoproteins, and a fine balance has been achieved, by evolution, between evolutionary protection against capsular bacteria and the need for development of the nervous system. This is consistent with the fact that myelination begins with infancy, and lasts until early childhood, which coincides with the period during which the immune system is hypo-sensitive to carbohydrate antigens. Moreover, the period during which the immune system is least sensitive to carbohydrate antigens corresponds to the period of the most intense myelination. It is possible that antibodies to carbohydrates not only interfere with the development of the nervous system in infants and young children, but their negative effects are strengthened by a stable a response of the immune system induced by conjugated vaccines, which significantly disturbs the balance achieved by evolution.

Mumps

Mumps outbreak in Israel's highly vaccinated society: are two doses enough? 2012, Anis, Epidemiol Infect

Outbreak of the mumps in Israel (more than 5000 cases), 78% were fully vaccinated, mostly adolescents and adults were sick. In other countries (Austria, USA, Netherlands, Great Britain), outbreaks of mumps were also observed among adolescents and students, then as in countries where mumps are not vaccinated, children from 5 to 9 years old are sick. Despite high vaccination coverage (90-97%), antibodies to mumps were detected only in 68% of the population.
Authors write that the outbreaks of mumps in recent years have been caused by genotype G, whereas the vaccine contains the virus of genotype A. But they do not believe that About it it is connected with flashes, and suggest to enter the third dose of a vaccine.

Diphtheria

Death from diphtheria in developed countries is so rare that every such case is widely covered in the press. diphtheria in Spain, and in 2016 a girl in Belgium and a girl in England in 2008. This seems to be the only cases of death of children from diphtheria in developed countries in recent years 30.
In Israel over the past 40 years there was only 7 cases of diphtheria, and there have been no cases of diphtheria in the last 15 years.
Several cases of the disease are registered in Russia In 2012, there were 5 cases of the disease, including four vaccinated, including 11 carriers, of which 9 were immunized. In 2013, there were two cases of the disease, both vaccinated, four carriers were identified, all were vaccinated. In 2014 was one case, and in 2015 two more (it is unclear whether they were vaccinated or not). For all these years, no one died from diphtheria.
Many more cases of anthrax (anthrax) are registered in Russia), a much more dangerous disease (36 cases in 2016, 3 cases in 2015). But since they do not vaccinate her, and no one scares her, her parents are not very afraid that the child will suddenly catch her.

Tetanus

Naturally Acquired Immunity to Tetanus Toxin in an Isolated Community. 1985, Matzkin, Infect Immun

There is a complete medical consensus on that natural immunity against tetanus is impossible, and only a vaccine can prevent the disease.
The authors ran blood tests of two hundred randomly selected immigrants from Ethiopia to Israel and found tetanus antibodies in 98% of them. 30% of them had the level of antibodies that is considered protective (above 0.01 UI/ml). None of them have been vaccinated.
The amount of antibodies increased with age. The authors concluded that natural immunity is produced from continuous contact with the bacteria.

Tetanus

Tetanus immunity in kibbutz women. 1989, Leshem, Isr J Med Sci

Researchers ran blood tests of 120 randomly selected women living in Israeli kibbutzim. All of them had sufficient levels of antibodies against tetanus toxin, despite the fact that 12.5% of them had never been vaccinated.
Many of them were not fully vaccinated (from 6% among the young to 68% among the elderly).

Whooping cough

Pertussis Infection in Fully Vaccinated Children in Day Care Centers, Israel. 2000, Srugo, Emerg Infect Dis

While there are hundreds of case reports for different vaccines, we have not yet cited any until now. This case occurred in the year 2000, when a whole-cell (i.e., more effective) vaccine was administered to a 2-month-old child in Israel. Despite the entire family (mother, aunt and three brothers - 2, 5 and 11 years old) being fully vaccinated, the child died of whooping cough at an age of 4 months. Moreover, both younger brothers who were at kindergarten had also been fully vaccinated with four doses. The mother of the child developed a cough that lasted for three consecutive months. The two other brothers also coughed heavily, and although the 18-year-old aunt who lived with them did not cough, she was also ill. In the end, it turned out that the whole family – five people - was infected with pertussis. In addition, five children from both kindergartens (11%) were also infected, although only two of them fell under the new definition of whooping cough as stated by the WHO. The authors of this study concluded that the pertussis vaccination does not fully protect children from whooping cough, that its effectiveness does not even reach into early childhood, and that vaccinated children act as a "quiet reservoir" of infection in current society.

Hepatitis B

In Israel, since 2005 the Israeli vaccine Sci-B-Vac has been used. only in the center of Israel and in the south (because the entire market can not be given to one producer).In July 2015, this vaccine was withdrawn. According to a statement by the Ministry of Health, it was recalled because the ampoules arrived on the machine that glued the labels too quickly, which could theoretically result in micro-cracks and bacterial contamination. the population was asked not to worry, but the vaccine was withdrawn.Two years have passed since then, but the vaccine did not return to the market, and probably could not solve the problem of sticking labels.

Hepatitis B

Sci-B-Vac is a third-generation vaccine, the first generation was a live vaccine, the second generation is a recombinant (genetically modified) vaccine containing virus-like particles. The third generation vaccine contains two more antigens, and therefore gives more strong immune response.
The only published clinical trial of the vaccine included 150 children. The vaccine did not receive a permission from the FDA. The Ministries of Health Committee report which allowed the vaccination in Israel, somewhere disappeared.
Many parents argue that the children because of this vaccination had strong side effects, developmental delays, etc. What is not very surprising, since it contained twice as much aluminum, in addition, it has three antigens instead of one, which further increases the risk of autoimmune reaction. Why this will be dismantled in another part.

Unvaccinated

Reduced rate of side effects associated with separate administration of MMR and DTaP-Hib-IPV vaccinations. 2009, Shneyer, Isr Med Assoc J

Side effects of vaccination were observed in 57% of children who received MMR and pentavalent vaccine simultaneously, but only in 40% among those, who only received the MMR vaccine.
Authors conclude that, perhaps, the current policy on simultaneous vaccinations should be reviewed.

Autism

A prevalence estimate of pervasive developmental disorder among immigrants to Israel and Israeli natives- a file review study. 2004, Kamer, Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol

У детей выходцев из Эфиопии, рожденных в Израиле, риск первазивного расстройства развития был немного ниже, чем у детей не-эфиопов. Но среди израильских детей, рожденных в Эфиопии, не было ни одного случая первазивного расстройства развития (среди 11,800 детей).
Авторы заключают, что роды в Израиле, индустриальной стране, являются маркером экологического риска аутизма.